Phaedrotoma

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Li X, Achterberg C, Tan J (2013) Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera. ZooKeys 268 : 1–186, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-02-13, version 31029, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Phaedrotoma&oldid=31029 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Li2013ZooKeys268,
author = {Li, Xi-Ying AND Achterberg, Cornelis van AND Tan, Ji-Cai},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera},
year = {2013},
volume = {268},
issue = {},
pages = {1--186},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.268.4071},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4071/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-02-13, version 31029, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Phaedrotoma&oldid=31029 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera
A1 - Li X
A1 - Achterberg C
A1 - Tan J
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 268
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.268.4071
SP - 1
EP - 186
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-02-13, version 31029, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Phaedrotoma&oldid=31029 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.268.4071

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Li2013ZooKeys268">{{Citation
| author = Li X, Achterberg C, Tan J
| title = Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 268
| issue =
| pages = 1--186
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.268.4071
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/4071/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-04-06

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-02-13, version 31029, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Phaedrotoma&oldid=31029 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Hymenoptera
Familia: Braconidae

Name

Phaedrotoma Foerster, 1862Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Diagnosis

Face without tubercles; in front of anterior ocellus without distinct depression; frons without pair of distinct depressions above antennal sockets, but whole frons may be depressed; occipital carina present laterally, not or slightly curved ventrally and remain removed from hypostomal carina (Figs 243, 253), near level of middle of eye straight or nearly so, without transverse carina or crest; clypeus more or less convex and comparatively high; hypoclypeal depression variable; labrum normal, without emargination ventrally; mandible normal, gradually widened basally, at most with protruding carina; scapus, fore coxa and trochanter at most weakly compressed; epistomal suture without large depressions; medio-posterior depression of mesoscutum variable; pronope round or wide elliptical, or pronotum only with a shallow transverse groove; scutellar sulcus usually rather wide; propodeum usually smooth or superficially sculptured; postpectal carina completely absent; vein 2-SR of fore wing present, rarely absent; first subdiscal cell of fore wing at least partly closed by vein 3-CU1 postero-apically (Fig. 197); vein 1-M of fore wing usually straight; vein cu-a of hind wing nearly always present; vein 3-SR of fore wing distinctly longer than vein 2-SR; if subequal then vein m-cu of hind wing or precoxal sulcus (almost) absent; length of fore wing usually less than 3.5 mm; second and basal half of third tergite without sharp lateral crease, if sometimes weakly developed then second tergite smooth; length of second and third tergites combined less than 0.7 times length of metasoma behind first tergite; fourth and following tergites (at least partly) exposed; ovipositor sheath more or less setose basally.

Biology

Parasitoids of mining Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Ephydridae, Anthomyiidae, Scathophagidae, and Drosophilidae.

Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Notes

“Taxonomic dustbin” genus of the Opiinae; if there are no obvious aut-apomorphies (except for the lack of a dorsope) species are included in this genus. The species share a straight occipital carina ventrally, the symmetrical and basally gradually widened mandibles, the lack of a dorsope, the gradually widened or parallel-sided first tergite and the vein m-cu of the fore wing angled with neighbouring veins. It is most likely that this is not a monophyletic assemblage and is in need of future study.

Taxon Treatment

  • Li, X; Achterberg, C; Tan, J; 2013: Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera ZooKeys, 268: 1-186. doi

Other References

  1. Foerster A (1862) Synopsis der Familien und Gattungen der Braconiden. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande und Westfalens 19: 225-288.
  2. Shenefelt R (1970) Braconidae, 2. Hymenopterorum Catalogus (nov. ed. ) 5: 177-306.
  3. Wharton R (1987) Changes in nomenclature and classification of some opiine Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 89 (1): 61-73.
  4. Brues C (1926) Studies on Ethiopian Braconidae, with a catalogue of the African species. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 61: 205-436. doi: 10.2307/20026158

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