Paradonea variegata

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Miller J, Griswold C, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M (2012) The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys 195 : 1–144, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-18, version 24592, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paradonea_variegata&oldid=24592 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Miller2012ZooKeys195,
author = {Miller, Jeremy A. AND Griswold, Charles E. AND Scharff, Nikolaj AND Řezáč, Milan AND Szűts, Tamás AND Marhabaie, Mohammad},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {195},
issue = {},
pages = {1--144},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.195.2342},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2342/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-18, version 24592, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paradonea_variegata&oldid=24592 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)
A1 - Miller J
A1 - Griswold C
A1 - Scharff N
A1 - Řezáč M
A1 - Szűts T
A1 - Marhabaie M
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 195
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.195.2342
SP - 1
EP - 144
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-18, version 24592, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paradonea_variegata&oldid=24592 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.195.2342

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Miller2012ZooKeys195">{{Citation
| author = Miller J, Griswold C, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M
| title = The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 195
| issue =
| pages = 1--144
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.195.2342
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2342/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-10-15

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-18, version 24592, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paradonea_variegata&oldid=24592 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Eresidae
Genus: Paradonea

Name

Paradonea variegata (Purcell)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Adonea variegata Purcell 1904[1]: 137, pl. 10, fig. 7; Lehtinen 1967[2]: 461, figs 457, 459.
  • Paradonea variegata (Purcell, 1904). Lawrence 1968[3]: 116.

Diagnosis

Male distinguished from other eresids except Paradonea presleyi sp. n. by the conductor, which bears a helical ridge fringed with distinct papillae (Figs 14B, C, 69G, H); distinguished from Paradonea presleyi sp. n. by the mesally excavated chelicerae (Fig. 69C; contiguous in Paradonea presleyi sp. n., Fig. 70I), the dorsal abdominal pattern (Fig. 69A), the median eye group, which has only slight overlap on the vertical axis (Figs 10E, 69C; significant overlap in Paradonea presleyi sp. n., Fig. 70I), and the relatively more narrow and long shape of the conductor (Fig. 14B, C; compare with Fig. 14J, L). Female distinguished from other eresids except members of the Eresus sandaliatus group by the large, bulbous spermathecal head (Fig. 18E); distinguished from the Eresus sandaliatus group by the larger size difference between the AME and PME (AME/PME ca. 0.5 in Paradonea variegata, Fig. 69F; >0.6 in Eresus sandaliatus group, Fig. 9C) and by the overall lighter color (Fig. 69D; compare with Fig. 43E). Note that interpretation of the female reproductive duct characters for Paradonea variegata is based on light microscopy, not SEM, and must therefore be regarded as tentative.

Description

Male (Breekkierie Dunes, South Africa, C1062, SAM): Carapace with some white setae, especially around margin of thoracic region, cephalic region subtriangular, longer than wide, moderately raised; AME distinctly smaller than PME (AME/PME 0.52), median eyes adjacent on horizontal axis, some overlap on vertical axis; ALE tubercles absent; PER much narrower than AER (PER/AER 0.86), PLE position on carapace 0.31, clypeal hood forms a slightly less than 90° angle; fovea shallow. Chelicerae with lateral boss, excavated mesally. Legs with some white setae; with row of distal ventral macrosetae on metatarsus I–IV and scattered ventral macrosetae on metatarsus and tarsus I–IV. Dorsal surface of abdomen thickly covered in white setae except for central irregular oblong dark patch (Figs 10E, F, 69A–C).
Male palp with proximal-distal axis; tegulum bulbous; conductor and embolus together form apical complex running more or less distally; conductor moderately sclerotized with helical ridge fringed with distinct papillae, hooked distally; tegular division longer than embolic division; cymbium with several prolateral macrosetae (Figs 14B, C, 69G, H).
Female (Steinkopf, South Africa, ZMB 26964, ZMHB): Carapace with patches of white setae; cephalic region subtrapezoidal, longer than wide, moderately raised; AME distinctly smaller than PME (AME/PME 0.48), median eyes with some overlap on horizontal axis, some overlap on vertical axis; ALE on small tubercles; PER slightly narrower than AER (PER/AER 0.93), PLE position on carapace 0.31; clypeal hood forms acute angle; fovea moderately deep. Chelicerae contiguous mesally, with lateral boss. Legs without conspicuous white setae; legs with row of distal ventral macrosetae on metatarsus I–IV and numerous ventral macrosetae on metatarsus and tarsus II–IV. Abdomen with numerous white setae (Figs 10G, H, 69D–F).
Epigynum with slightly converging slit-like atria copulatory converging slits occupying ca. the posterior half, median lobe subtrapezoidal, nearly as long as wide, deeply recessed within epigynum (Fig. 18B). Vulva with bulbous lobes slightly converging anteriorly (presumably bearing the spermathecal heads) and multilobed spermathecae posteriorly (Fig. 18E).

Natural history

Known from savanna and semiarid desert. They build silken tubes under stones or under shrubs. Sometimes, spiders build a round web approximately 10 cm in diameter that may be covered with sand and herbal debris. Juveniles feed on their mother’s corpse before dispersing (cf. Fig. 3D). Adults appear around December, juveniles disperse in October (Martin Forman, personal observation).

Taxon Treatment

  • Miller, J; Griswold, C; Scharff, N; Řezáč, M; Szűts, T; Marhabaie, M; 2012: The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae) ZooKeys, 195: 1-144. doi

Other References

  1. Purcell W (1904) Descriptions of new genera and species of South African spiders. Transactions of the South African Philosophical Society 15: 115-173. doi: 10.1080/21560382.1904.9626437
  2. Lehtinen P (1967) Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families. Annales Zoologici Fennici 4: 199-468.
  3. Lawrence R (1968) Four new spiders from southern Africa (Araneae). Annales of the Natal Museum 20: 109-121.

Images