Paedophryne

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Kraus F (2010) New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea. ZooKeys 48 : 39–59, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-18, version 20648, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paedophryne&oldid=20648 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Kraus2010ZooKeys48,
author = {Kraus, Fred},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea},
year = {2010},
volume = {48},
issue = {},
pages = {39--59},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.48.446},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/446/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-18, version 20648, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paedophryne&oldid=20648 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea
A1 - Kraus F
Y1 - 2010
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 48
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.48.446
SP - 39
EP - 59
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-18, version 20648, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paedophryne&oldid=20648 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.48.446

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Kraus2010ZooKeys48">{{Citation
| author = Kraus F
| title = New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2010
| volume = 48
| issue =
| pages = 39--59
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.48.446
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/446/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2019-11-26

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-01-18, version 20648, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Paedophryne&oldid=20648 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Anura
Familia: Microhylidae

Name

Paedophryne Kraus gen. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Type species

Paedophryne kathismaphlox Kraus 2010

Content

Two species:

Diagnosis

A genus of minute (male SV = 10.1 mm, female SV = 10.4–11.3 mm) frogs with short legs (TL/SV = 0.35–0.40); eleutherognathine jaw; absence of clavicles, procoracoid cartilage, and omosternum (Fig. 1A); seven presacral vertebrae lacking neural crests (Fig. 2B); tips of digits flattened; phalangeal formula 1-2-3-2 on hand, 1-2-3-4-2 on foot, reducing digits F1 and T1 to vestigial nubs (Fig. 1C, D); prepollex and prehallux each reduced to a single element; M. depressor mandibulae overlying posterior margin of tympanum (Fig. 3G); M. adductor mandibularis anterior longus small and inserting only on lateral portions of frontoparietals (Fig. 3H); M. submentalis hypertrophied (Fig. 3I); and tongue long, straplike, attached to floor of mouth along anterior third.

Comparisons with other genera

The new genus differs from all known genera within the Asterophryinae in having the phalanges on the first digits of each hand and foot reduced to tiny cartilaginous elements, imparting to these digits the external appearance of a rudimentary nub (Fig. 4D, E, 5D, E), and in having the prepollex and prehallux reduced to single elements. Its diminutive size also distinguishes it from the vast majority of other asterophryines: although a few small species of Albericus, Aphantophryne, Choerophryne, Cophixalus, and Oreophryne approach this small a size, only one species of Oreophryne attains it. Paedophryne further differs from all other asterophryine genera except Aphantophryne, some Albericus (Menzies 1997[1]), and occasional aberrant individuals of Cophixalus (Zweifel & Parker 1989) in having seven (instead of eight) presacral vertebrae; and the length and narrowness of the straplike tongue is only approximated in some other very small species of Cophixalus and some Oreophryne.
The small species of Albericus, Choerophryne, and Oreophryne are most readily distinguished from Paedophryne by having expanded digital discs; as well, the last-named retains clavicles and a procoracoid cartilage. The new genus is superficially most similar to Aphantophryne (in vertebral number, short legs, and having the M. depressor mandibulae overlying the posterior margin of tympanum, Fig. 3G) and to smaller species of Cophixalus (in general appearance and tendency toward digital reduction in some species). In addition to the characters noted above, Paedophryne differs from Aphantophryne in its more gracile habitus (squat in Aphantophryne); in having the tips of the digits flattened (rounded in Aphantophryne); in having a long, straplike tongue (ovoid in Aphantophryne); in its more widely expanded sacral diapophyses; in lacking neural crests on the presacral vertebrae (present in Aphantophryne); and in having the M. adductor mandibularis anterior longus small and inserting only on lateral portions of frontoparietals (M. adductor mandibularis anterior longus hypertrophied and inserting on the medial portions of frontoparietals in Aphantophryne, Fig. 3B, Table 1). Paedophryne further differs from all Cophixalus species in lacking neural crests on the presacral vertebrae (present in Cophixalus), differs from all Cophixalus species except Cophixalus sphagnicola Zweifel & Allison in having the M. submentalis hypertrophied (M. submentalis a small strap in Cophixalus, Fig. 3C), and differs from all Cophixalus except Cophixalus cryptotympanum Zweifel and Cophixalus kaindiensis Zweifel in having the M. depressor mandibulae overlying the posterior margin of the tympanum (M. depressor mandibulae runs entirely behind posterior margin of tympanum in all other Cophixalus, Fig. 3D, Table 1).

Table 1. Features diagnosing Paedophryne gen. n. from its most similar-appearing relatives. Features given for Cophixalus exclude mention of uncommon variants discussed in the text.
Character Aphantophryne Cophixalus Paedophryne
Number of presacral vertebrae 8 8 7
Neural crests present present absent
Number of elements in prepollex 2 2-3 1
Number of elements in prehallux 2 2-3 1
Phalangeal formula on hand 2-2-3-3 usually 2-2-3-3, sometimes 1-2-4-2, 2-2-4-2, or 2-2-3-4 1-2-3-2
Phalangeal formula on foot 2-2-3-4-3 2-2-3-4-3 or 2-2-3-4-2 1-2-3-4-1
Tongue Ovoid Usually ovoid; straplike in some small species Long, straplike
M. adductor mandibularis anterior longus hypertrophied; inserts on medial portions of parietals small; inserts on lateral portions of parietals small; inserts on lateral portions of parietals
M. depressor mandibulae overlies posterior margin of tympanum entirely behind posterior margin of tympanum overlies posterior margin of tympanum
M. submentalis hypertrophied small straps hypertrophied

Distribution

Known from one mountain in the southeastern tip of New Guinea and from one mountain on nearby Fergusson Island, D’Entrecasteaux Islands (Fig. 6).

Etymology

The name is a feminine, latinized noun derived from the Greek “paidos”, meaning “child”, and “phryne”, meaning “toad”. It refers to the juvenilized appearance of the frogs.

Original Description

  • Kraus, F; 2010: New genus of diminutive microhylid frogs from Papua New Guinea ZooKeys, 48: 39-59. doi

Other References

  1. Menzies J (1997) Variation in number of vertebrae within the genus Albericus (Amphibia: Microhylidae) of New Guinea. Science in New Guinea 22: 135-136.

Images