|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see
). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
See also the citation download page at the journal.
- Nidularia balachowskii Bodenheimer, 1941: 78–80.
General appearance. Young, pre-reproductive adult dorsum brownish and venter yellowish white; oval, soft and flat; 1.2–1.9 mm long and 0.6–0.9 mm wide. Dorsal surface covered with 5 longitudinal rows of rectangular wax plates, each plate about 0.25 mm long and 0.3 mm wide; median row with 11 plates, lateral row on each side of median row with 9–11 plates and marginal rows with 7–9 plates. The wax plates become gradually smaller in size towards anterior and posterior apices and lateral margin (Fig. 1). Post-reproductive female oval, moderately convex and sclerotized; 2.75–3.75 mm long, 2–3 mm wide and 0.8–1.8 mm high; 5 longitudinal rows of dark brown wax plates almost fused; with lighter brown wax in between rows of plates (Fig. 2).
Slide-mounted young adult female 0.8– 3 mm long, 0.5–2.5 mm wide (Fig. 3).
Margin. Marginal setae, pointed, 12–13 µm long; placed in a row of 30–36 setae. Stigmatic spines absent. Anal cleft absent.
Dorsum. Simple pores, circular, each with a sclerotized rim and 1 µm diameter; covering entire dorsum. Other pore types absent. Dorsal setae absent.
Venter. Eyes circular, 5–7 µm diameter, each placed anterolaterally to each antenna. Antennae each1-segmented, 15–25 µm long, 12–18 µm wide; eachbearing 2–6 fleshy setae. Legs absent. Clypeolabral shield 113–155 µm long, 113–125 µm wide. Labium 3-segmented, triangular, 100–125 µm long, 50–63 µm wide; labial setae as follows; basal segment with 2 pairs of hair-like setae, 9–20 µm long, median segment with 1 pair of hair-like setae, 11–13 µm long, apical segment with 6 setae; 2 apical setae, 9–12 µm long plus 4 hair-like; subapical setae, each 12–20 µm long. Spiracles subequal in size; each 42–60 µm long, 31–50 µm diameter of peritreme. Quinquelocular pores each 5 µm diameter; with 8–11 between mesothoracic spiracles and submarginal band of tubular ducts; 10–13 between the metathoracic spiracles; 2–4 laterad to each metathoracic spiracle; also in a single, complete submarginal band, 1 pore wide from head apex to anal ring; total number of pores per side about 50–71.Bilocular pores each about 3 µm wide, totaling 103–135 per side, dispersed within a submarginal tubular duct band. Multilocular pores each 7–8 µm in diameter with 9–10 loculi; in groups of 3 or 4 between each metathoracic and mesothoracic spiracle;in transverse bands across abdominal segments arranged as follows; segment III with 3–7, IV with 12–24, V with 14–28, VI with 15–35, VII with 18–25, VIII with 12–19, IX with 2–3 on each side of vulva. Tubular ducts dispersed in a complete submarginal band, 2–3 ducts wide, each duct with outer ductule 12–18 µm long and 5 µm wide, a sclerotized cup about 5 µm in diameter and inner ductule about 22–30 µm long; also scattered over thorax. Other ventral setae: with a group of 7 or 8 setae, each 7–13 µm long, anterior to clypeus; 1 pair, 7–8 µm long, posterior to each antenna; 8–12 setae, each 5–8 µm long, placed medially to each spiracle; 8 setae, 5–13 µm long, distributed in 1 longitudinal row placed medially to each marginal band of bilocular pores and tubular ducts; each abdominal segment with transverse rows of 4–10 setae, each 7–8 µm long, placed anterior to bands of multilocular pores. Microspines present on median and submedian areas of each abdominal segment, in 3–5 transverse rows; each spine about 1 µm long, also scattered on thorax. Anal ring located on venter,composed of 2semi-circles; diameter27–35 µm; each half circle bearing 3 pointed setae and 10–12 cells; anterior setae each 25–38 µm long, median and posterior setae each 15–25 µm long; 2 pairs of thin setae just anterior to anal ring, each 7–10 µm long, plus a pair of pointed setae postero-laterally to anal ring, separated by a space about double diameter of anal ring, each 10–13 µm long. Also1 pair of apical setae, each 65–68 µm long, and 4 setae, each 15–22 µm long, between apical setae, similar in structure to, but longer than, marginal setae.
General appearance. Yellow-greyish, oval and tapering posteriorly 0.38–0.43 mm long and 0.2–0.3 mm wide.
Slide-mounted specimen. Oval, 0.42–0.53 mm long and 0.19–0.34 mm wide (Fig. 4).
Margin. Marginal setae sharply spinose, pointed apically and slightly curved; each 9–15 µm long; in a distinct row of 26–33 setae on each margin.
Dorsum. Derm membranous; intersegmental lines observable. Simple pores, circular with a sclerotized rim, each 1 µm diameter; totaling about 30, scattered over entire dorsum in 4 longitudinal rows; 2 submarginal lines on thorax and abdomen and 2 medial lines on abdomen; with a single pair of submedial setae on each thoracic segment, each 5 µm long.
Venter. Eyes present as semi-circles near margin, diameter 12–15 µm. Antennae each 6-segmented, length 88–125 µm; segments III and VI longer than other segments; scape with 2 hair-like setae; pedicel with 2 hair-like setae; segment III with 1 long hair-like seta; IV with 1 fleshy seta; V with 1 fleshy seta, 2 hair-like setae and, 1 thick hair-like seta; apical segment with 2 fleshy setae and 5 hair-like setae. Legs well-developed; measurements of hind legs; (in µm): coxae 25–30, trochanter + femur 63–80, tibia 25–38, tarsus 25–60, claw 13–23; total leg length 158–213; trochanter with 2 oval, sensory pores on each side, each about 2–3 µm wide; setae present on each leg segment; tarsal digitules each 25–30 µm long, knobbed apically, extending beyond apex of claw; claw digitules knobbed apically, each 14–20 µm long, shorter than tarsal digitules; each claw with a single denticle near the tip. Clypeolabral shield well-developed; 75–90 µm long and 63–75 µm wide. Labium 3-segmented, triangular, 82–100 µm long and 35–38 µm wide; labial setae as follows; basal segment with 2 pairs of setae, each 10–15 µm long, median segment with 1 pair of hair-like setae on dorsal surface, each 10–20 µm long, apical segment with 3 pairs of hair-like setae, 12–17 µm long. Spiracles subequal in size; peritreme about 3–5 µm diameter; crescent shaped sclerosis 15–25 µm long. Bilocular pores, oval, each 2 µm long and 1 µm wide, with 1 present submarginally about level of each spiracle. Quinquelocular pores each 3 µm diameter, as follows; 1 just anterior to each spiracle; 1 medially to each coxa; 2 on each of abdominal segments IV, V, VI. Microspines present on median and submedian areas of each abdominal segment, in 2–4 transverse rows; each spine about 1 µm long. Setae 1 pair, similar in size and shape to marginal setae, between anterior apex of body and basal segments of antennae; 6 interantennal setae, each 20–30 µm long between basal segments of antennae and anterior apex of clypeus; 1 seta 8–15 µm long medially to each coxa; 2 longitudinal rows, each with 7–8 setae, similar in shape to marginal setae but shorter, each about 8 µm long, extending submarginally from laterad to metathoracic coxae to anterior margin of anal ring, no setae present on most posterior abdominal segment; 2 longitudinal rows of 6 setae, each about 5 µm long, located submarginally on abdomen; 2 longitudinal rows of 4 setae, each about 10 µm long, located submedially on abdomen; plus 2 longitudinal rows of 6 setae, about 17–18 µm long, located medially. Anal ring located ventrally; composed of 2 semi-circles; diameter 15–25 µm; each semi-circle with about 17 cells and 3 pointed setae, subequal in size, each 20–30 µm long. Also with a pair of setae, each 12–15 µm long, anterior to anal ring and 1 pair, each 15–25 µm long, postero-laterally to anal ring. Anal lobes well-developed; each lobe bearing 2 pointed setae, 12–15 µm long, distinctly thicker than marginal setae, plus 1 pair of long, apical setae 77–125 µm long.
- Spodek, M; Ben-Dov, Y; Ghanim, M; Mendel, Z; 2012: Morphological and molecular taxonomy of Nidularia balachowskii Bodenheimer (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) with notes on its life history in Israel ZooKeys, 254: 23-45. doi