|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see
). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
See also the citation download page at the journal.
- Neopalpa neonata Povolný, 1998a: 141, figs 1, 6.
Holotype ♂, California: Los Angeles County, Santa Catalina Island, Middle Cyn. 5.ii.1978, J.A. Chemsak, specimen # EMEC82306, genitalia slide Pw1173 (EMEC). Paratype ♂, Mexico: Baja California Sur, 21 mi. W. La Paz, 8.9.1966, J.A. Powell, specimen # EMEC342305, genitalia slide Pw1173 (EMEC).
For a complete list of additional specimens examined from California, Arizona and Mexico (n = 386), see Suppl. material 1.
Distinguishable from the species described below by dark forewing and frons, well-developed vincular processes that are more than 4× as long as sacculus, segment 8 in female genitalia heavily sculpted with microtrichea, and signum heavily granulated with small stubby spines.
Adult (Figs 1a–f, 2a, b). Forewing length: male 3.6–4.9 mm (mean 4.2 mm, n=50); female 4.2–5.0 mm (mean 4.3 mm, n=50). Head, thorax and tegula covered with a mixture of grayish-brown scales with darker tips; scales on vertex and frons with darker tips, often appressed, converging towards middle. Labial palpi up-curved, annulated, segment 3 acute, about ⅔ size of segment 2; antenna about ⅔ length of forewing, with more or less distinct dark and light rings, scape covered with yellow and dark-brown scales. Mesoscutum grayish brown, tegulae greyish brown to brown. Forewing upper surface ground coloration consists of a mixture of grayish-brown scales with dark tips, the dorsal region and subterminal fascia distinctly paler partly mixed with orange scales; three to four obscure black tear-shaped stigmata situated axially, first near forewing base, second in wing center, third in cell; additional one or two stigmata in the dorsal forewing fold, the first near wing center, the second rather indicated by a group of chocolate-brown scales before external transverse band near forewing dorsum; apical area and fringes generally dark grey mottled with lighter suffusion. Hindwing deep grey, unmarked, slender, with distinctly protruding tip. Sexes similar. Variation. Adult size and the intensity of forewing pattern variable. A large female specimen (wingspan=6.3mm, not included in mean wingspan calculation) from Cedar Pass Campground, Modoc County (EMEC408849, dissection VNZ 591, Fig. 1f) shows gray ground coloration on wings instead of dark brown, but the female genitalia are identical to those of Neopalpa neopalpa (Fig. 1f).
Male genitalia (Figs 3a–d, 4a) (seven preparations examined). Tergum 8 subtriangular, equilateral, weakly sclerotized and concave anteriorly; sternum 8 more than 2× the width of tergum 8, subquadrate, broader than long, posterior margin broadly rounded, anterior margin bilobate with a protruded anterolateral corner. Tegumen slender, parallel-sided, the anterior margin laterally notched; uncus long and narrow with a round apex, finely setose; gnathos a short delicate spine with distinct V-shaped arms about same width; culcitula weakly developed. Valva sigmoid, long and slender, parallel-sided, bifurcating at about ⅘ length of valva towards tip into two equally-sized acute branches in form of antlers; sacculus parabasally located, short and cone-shaped, finely setose; posterior margin of vinculum with a striking paired bilobate process separated by a deep, narrow excision; this process with a shorter truncate lobe provided with a brush of long, stiff hairs, their tips extending over second (longer) lobe with obtuse upper edge and with rounded lateral side, both armoured with numerous short spinules; lateral side of the paired process fused basally with oblique wall of sacculus; (ventral) wall of sacculus strengthened basally by a distinct, paired, heavily-sclerotized curved ledge; saccus elongate, ligulate, nearly as long as tegumen, with distinctly-sclerotized lateral edge and a moderately rounded tip; phallus nearly as long as the longitudinal genitalia axis, moderately sigmoid, with a strongly-curved, rounded tip, a distinct subterminal hook-like spine, and an irregularly subovate caecum.
Female genitalia (Fig. 5a, c) (eight preparations examined). Segment 8 parallel sided on slide mounts, subgenital plate heavily sculpted with microtraechia, two distinct dense round patches of microtraechia on Segment 8 posterolaterally; ostium bursae subspherical, distinctly-edged anterolaterally; antrum wide, tubular, weakly sclerotized, nearly ¾ length of apophysis anterioris; apophysis anterioris thin, parallel sided, about the same length as segment 8; ductus bursae about same width and length of antrum, lightly sculpted with speckles; corpus bursae clearly deliniated, bulbous, lightly sculpted; signum aviform with a central spine and two subtriangular wings covered with several rows of spinules.
Povolný’s assumption that this species is a Channel Islands endemic is incorrect, as it seems to have a much wider distribution on the mainland. Examined specimens are from the USA: California (Imperial, Inyo, Los Angeles, Modoc, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara and Solano counties); Arizona (Cochise and Coconino counties), as well as Mexico (States of Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur).
Adults fly throughout the year, probably in more than one generation. Studied specimens were collected in every month of the year in almost even numbers (the high number of samples collected in March is likely an artefact of high-volume Malaise trapping in one location). The two males that formed the type series of this species were collected in the “xeric maritime habitats extending from California Channel Islands.” Additional specimens examined were collected in a variety of generally dry habitat types in canyons, creeks, campgrounds, microphyll forest, dry bush, dunes and desert habitats. The life history and host plant remain unknown; nearly all specimens examined were collected at light or in Malaise traps, although one specimen (UCREM 4318, UCR) was “collected in tomato foliage.”
- Nazari, V; 2017: Review of Neopalpa Povolný, 1998 with description of a new species from California and Baja California, Mexico (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) ZooKeys, (646): 79-94. doi