Monacha syriaca

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Neubert E, Bariche M (2013) On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae). ZooKeys 311 : 1–18, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-06-20, version 35382, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Neubert, Eike AND Bariche, Michel},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae)},
year = {2013},
volume = {311},
issue = {},
pages = {1--18},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.311.5408},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-06-20, version 35382, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae)
A1 - Neubert E
A1 - Bariche M
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 311
IS -
UR -
SP - 1
EP - 18
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-06-20, version 35382, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.311.5408

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Neubert2013ZooKeys311">{{Citation
| author = Neubert E, Bariche M
| title = On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 311
| issue =
| pages = 1--18
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.311.5408
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-07-12

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-06-20, version 35382, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Gastropoda
Familia: Hygromiidae
Genus: Monacha


Monacha syriaca (Ehrenberg, 1831)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Specimens examined:

NMBE 506363/1, Hlaliye, 33.8393°N, 35.636°E, 475 m alt., 28.10.2011; NMBE 506362/2, Ajhbe, 34.0087°N, 35.7108°E, 1164 m alt., 27.10.2011; NMBE 506361/5, Aaramoun, 34.0153°N, 35.6973°E, 760 m alt., 27.10.2011; NMBE 506360/7, above Kfour, 34.0317°N, 35.6988°E, 895 m alt., 27.10.2011; NMBE 506359/3, Kfour, 34.0348°N, 35.6952°E, 817 m alt., 27.10.2011; NMBE 506358/2, Adma, 34.0166°N, 35.6489°E, 85 m alt., 27.10.2011; NMBE 505184/1, above Kfour, 34.0317°N, 35.6988°E, 895 m alt., 27.10.2011 (preserved); NMBE 25914/3, Trablous (= Tripoli), 34.43°N, 35.85°E, coll. Shuttleworth ex Verreaux; NMBE 508014/20, road between Ain Et Tine and Machgara, 33.516°N, 35.644°E, 1080 m alt., 21.08.2008; NMBE 508013/2, Jezzine, Mazrad el Mathané, 33.576°N, 35.519°E, 450 m alt., 21.08.2008; NMBE 508012/2, Nahr Bisri, 33.58°N, 35.535°E, 400 m alt., 21.08.2008; NMBE 508011/64, Jezzine, W of village, steep slope, 33.546°N, 35.575°E, 940 m alt., 21.08.2008; NMBE 508010/15, Nahr Ibrahim, Chouene, trail Chouene–Chouwan Lake, 34.081°N, 35.785°E, 450 m alt., 20.08.2008; NMBE 508009/6, Nahr Ibrahim, close to the estuary, 34.065°N, 35.643°E, 20.08.2008; NMBE 508008/1, Qanater al Zbeideh, Nahr Beirut, 33.85°N, 35.556°E, 80 m alt., 19.08.2008; NMBE 508007/10, Byblos, 34.122°N, 35.652°E, 20 m alt., 19.08.2008; NMBE 508006/72, Nahr Abu Ali close to Seraad, 34.382°N, 35.93°E, 630 m alt., 19.08.2008; NMBE 508005/3, Tourza, 34.281°N, 35.89°E, 870 m alt., 19.08.2008; NMBE 508004/32, Jazire, Nahr al Qasimiyah (part of the Litani), 33.32°N, 35.288°E, 15 m alt., 18.08.2008; NMBE 508003/2, Nahr al Damour, 33.704°N, 35.452°E, 20 m alt., 18.08.2008; NMBE 508002/1, Nahr Kfar Matta at Jisr el Kadi, 33.721°N, 35.558°E, 260 m alt., 17.08.2008; NMBE 508001/75, Ain al Jdeidi, 33.809°N, 35.63°E, 918 m alt., 17.08.2008; NMBE 508000/1, Nahr el Kalb, upper reach of Nahr al-Kalb near Daraya, 33.955°N, 35.706°E, 700 m alt., 16.08.2008; NMBE 507999/7, Nahr el Kalb, Jeita Grotto, cave entrance, 33.944°N, 35.641°E, 90 m alt., 16.08.2008; NMBE 507998/2, Nahr el Kelb, road to Jeita Grotto, limestone slope, 33.947°N, 35.637°E, 115 m alt., 16.08.2008; AUBM-MOLL0470/5, Ghazir, 34.0302°N, 35.6701°E, 326 m alt., 25.10.2009; AUBM-MOLL0473/13, Habboub, 34.1284°N, 35.686°E, 420 m alt., 11.10.2009; AUBM-MOLL0476/7, Jeita, 33.9448°N, 35.6387°E, 88 m alt., 26.09.2009; AUBM-MOLL0478/1, Nahr el Kelb, 33.9547°N, 35.5975°E, 30 m alt., 26.09.2009; AUBM-MOLL0481/1, Hamat, 34.2967°N, 35.6768°E, 100 m alt., 16.01.2010; AUBM-MOLL0482/4, Kfar Kouass, 34.1222°N, 35.6969°E, 630 m alt., 11.10.2009; AUBM-MOLL0485/3, Moultaa el Nahreyn, 33.7029°N, 35.4673°E, 110 m alt., 04.10.2009; AUBM-MOLL0487/5, Bteghrine, 33.9253°N, 35.7745°E, 1000 m alt., 07.10.2009; AUBM-MOLL0329/16, Jounieh, 33.3896°N, 35.6323°E, coll. Pallary; AUBM-MOLL0335/38, Tartous, 34.8905°N, 35.8707°E, coll. Pallary; AUBM-MOLL0337/40, Beirut, 33.8526°N, 35.4296°E, coll. Pallary; AUBM-MOLL0338/25, Tripoli, 34.4314°N, 35.8184°E, coll. Pallary.


shell depressed, with two white spiral bands, malleate teleoconch sculpture, aperture reinforced by a strong white lip, apertural rim deep red, umbilicus closed by columellar callus.


shell depressed, with an elevated broad conical spire, basic shell colour deep brown to yellowish brown, usually with a white subsutural band and a second white band at the shell’s periphery; two protoconch whorls, smooth; teleoconch with a malleate sculpture (i.e. looks like markings of a small hammer) and very fine radial growth lines, surface with a glossy shine; last whorl rounded to slightly compressed forming a blunt shoulder; last whorl abruptly bent towards the aperture; aperture oval and depressed, reinforced by a strong white lip; apertural rim sharply bounded, usually deep red to brownish; umbilicus always closed by a small columellar callus.
Measurements (figured specimens). Fig. 1: H = 6.26; D = 10.12; PH = 3.17; PD = 5.38. Fig. 2: H = 6.18; D = 11.12; PH = 3.59; PD = 6.11.


This species is found widespread along the coastal areas in Lebanon. It usually lives at lower altitudes, but can occasionally be found up to 1000 m in more sheltered areas such as in the bottom of deep valleys.


This species cannot be mistaken for any other species in the area due to its characteristic colour pattern, teleoconch sculpture, and closed umbilicus.

Taxon Treatment

  • Neubert, E; Bariche, M; 2013: On the Monacha species of Lebanon (Gastropoda, Hygromiidae) ZooKeys, 311: 1-18. doi