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Head with lorum extended little or no farther dorsad than clypeal suture; gena partially or entirely concealing triangular proepisternum; anteclypeus strongly convex, tapered distally; frontoclypeus without median longitudinal carina; ocelli on crown anteromesad of eyes, well separated from anterior margin; crown glabrous or punctate, without oblique lateral submarginal carinae; antennal base near anterodorsal corner of eye. Forewing (Figs 19, 21, 23, 25, 27, 29) with crossvein s (= “r" of Evans 1947) absent (outer anteapical cell absent); inner apical cell elongate, more or less parallel-sided, extended to apical margin. Hind wing (Figs 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30) with submarginal vein very close to or coincident with edge of wing along apical and costal margins; R2+3 complete. Front femur (Figs 33, 34) row AV without enlarged basal setae; hind femoral setal formula 2+1+1; hind tarsomere I pecten with 4 or fewer setae, including 0–2 platellae. Male subgenital plates (Figs 37–45) usually elongate, depressed basally, expanded medially or distally in lateral view (triangular in Makilingiini), macrosetae when present well separated from lateral margin and scattered or uniseriate; style apex (Fig. 47) usually cheliform, apophysis usually with preapical tooth; connective Y- or T-shaped, usually with median anterior lobe. Female second valvulae (Figs 71, 75) with distal paired blades comprising 50% or more of entire length of ovipositor.
Mileewinae, as here redefined, are most readily distinguished from other Cicadellidae by the following combination of features: head with ocelli on crown distant from eyes and margin, frontoclypeus without median longitudinal carina; forewing with only two anteapical cells; hind wing submarginal vein very close to margin at wing apex; female second valvulae with paired distal blades occupying 50% or more of their length. They key to couplet 46 in Dietrich's (2005) key to tribes of Cicadellidae, which comprises the three previously recognized taxa included here as tribes. Comparative study of morphological characters indicates that Tungurahuala, previously placed in Nirvaninae (Kramer 1965), and a related new genus, Ilyapa, are not closely related to other nirvanines and are more closely allied to Mileewinae (Dietrich 2004). Mileewinae previously included only the nominotypical tribe but is here redefined to include tribes Tinteromini and Makilingiini (both previously treated as separate subfamilies), as well as a new tribe, Tungurahualini, described below.
The hind wing venation is very similar among the tribes here included in Mileewinae, although the extant Old World genera currently included in Mileewini (Mileewa Distant, Ujna Distant, and Processina Yang, Deitz & Li ) share a unique pattern in which vein R2+3 is complete but does not extend to the wing apex (Fig. 22); thus in these three genera there appear to be only three closed apical cells reaching the wing apex instead of the usual four (Fig. 26). Interestingly, this pattern does not occur in the New World mileewine genus Amahuaka Melichar, or in the two genera of Mileewini described from Eocene Baltic amber (Gebicki and Szwedo 2001), all of which have vein R2+3 extended to the wing apex (Fig. 26). Gebicki and Szwedo (2001) suggested that, based on the wing venation, Orsalebra robusta Young belongs in Mileewinae; however, species of Orsalebra have the ocelli on the anterior margin of the crown and are similar to Alebrini (Typhlocybinae) in other respects, so Young's (1952) original placement in Alebrini appears to be correct. As noted by Takiya (2007), Vidanoana Young, a genus endemic to Chile and currently placed in Cicadellini has hind wing venation similar to that of Mileewinae (Young 1977). The placement of this genus needs to be re-evaluated through further comparative study beyond the scope of the present paper.
Key to tribes of Mileewinae
- Dietrich, C; 2011: Tungurahualini, a new tribe of Neotropical leafhoppers, with notes on the subfamily Mileewinae (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) ZooKeys, 124: 19-39. doi
- Evans J (1947) A natural classification of leaf-hoppers (Jassoidea, Homoptera) Part 3. Jassidae. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 98: 105-271. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1947.tb01054.x
- Dietrich C (2005) Keys to families of Cicadomorpha and subfamilies and tribes of Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha). Florida Entomologist 88: 502-517. [502:KTTFOC2.0.CO;2 doi:10.1653/0015-4040(2005)88[502:KTTFOC]2.0.CO;2]
- Kramer J (1965) Studies of Neotropical leafhoppers. I. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 67: 65-74.
- Dietrich C (2004) Phylogeny of the leafhopper subfamily Evacanthinae with a review of Neotropical species and notes on related groups (Hemiptera: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae). Systematic Entomology 29: 455-487. doi:10.1111/j.0307-6970.2004.00250.x
- Gebicki C, Szwedo J (2001) The first record of fossil Mileewinae from Eocene Baltic amber (Hemiptera: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae). Annales Zoologici 511: 417-422.
- Takiya D (2007) Systematic studies on the leafhopper subfamily Cicadellinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.
- Young D (1977) Taxonomic study of the Cicadellinae (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Part 2. New World Cicadellini and the genus Cicadella. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 239: 1-1135.