Megapulvinaria beihaiensis

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Wang F, Feng J (2012) A review of the genus Megapulvinaria Young (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from China, with a description of a new species. ZooKeys 228 : 59–68, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-16, version 27845, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste


author = {Wang, Fang AND Feng, Ji-Nian},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A review of the genus Megapulvinaria Young (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from China, with a description of a new species},
year = {2012},
volume = {228},
issue = {},
pages = {59--68},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.228.3211},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-16, version 27845, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - A review of the genus Megapulvinaria Young (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from China, with a description of a new species
A1 - Wang F
A1 - Feng J
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 228
IS -
UR -
SP - 59
EP - 68
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-16, version 27845, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.228.3211

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Wang2012ZooKeys228">{{Citation
| author = Wang F, Feng J
| title = A review of the genus Megapulvinaria Young (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from China, with a description of a new species
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 228
| issue =
| pages = 59--68
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.228.3211
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-09-23

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-10-16, version 27845, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Hemiptera
Familia: Coccoidea
Genus: Megapulvinaria


Megapulvinaria beihaiensis Wang & Feng sp. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Material examined

Holotype: adult female. CHINA, Guangxi, Beihai, Haibin Park. 26. vii. 2010, on Cinnamomum sp., (Lauraceae), Bin Zhang (NWAFU)


3 adult females, the data same as holotype.


The measurements are based on all 4 specimens.
Description. Adult female. Unmounted material. Adult female yellowish brown or dark brown, elongate oval and with a longitudinal dorsal ridge in dorsal straight median area (materials examined were all immersed in 75% ethanol, and the ovisac was not seen). The specimens collected on the lamina of the host plant.
Mounted material. Body elongate oval, about 2.1–3.2 mm long, 1.3–1.7 mm wide. Anal cleft approximately 1/8 of the body length. Stigmatic clefts deep.
Dorsum. Derm membranous. Dermal areolations well-developed, each with a dorsal microduct. Dorsal setae conical, with a well-developed basal socket, each 6–11 µm long, scattered throughout. Dorsal simple pores each with a slightly sclerotized margin, randomly distributed. Dorsal microducts each with a very short outer ductule and a long, fairly broad inner filamentous ductule, sparsely located in each dorsal areaolation. Dorsal tubular ducts each with a short outer ductule and a fine inner ductule with a minute terminal gland, sparsely distributed. Preopercular pores absent. Anal plates together quadrate, dorsal surface with reticulations on anterior two-thirds; posterior margin subequal to or slightly longer than anterior margin, outer angle a right-angle; each plate with a blunt spinose seta in discal position, each 34–42 µm long, a large spinose or spatulate seta apically, each 48–54 µm long, and with 2 spinose setae along posterior 1/3rd of the inner margin, each 32–44 µm long, length of plates 146–167 µm, width of single plate 74–88 µm. Ano-genital fold with 1 pair of long setae and 1 pair of short setae along anterior margin and 2 or 3 pairs lateral margin. Anal ring subcircular, with 2 or 3 rows of translucent pores and 6 anal ring setae. Eyespots present some way onto dorsum, each 42–60 µm wide.
Margin. Marginal setae of 2 types: 1) stout setae, each 18–30 µm long; each seta with nearly parallel sides and with either a truncate or a bifid apex, all with well-developed basal sockets, each socket with 1 or 2 small pores; with 101–111 setae between anterior clefts, 34–42 setae on each side between stigmatic clefts, and 74–85 setae between each posterior stigmatic cleft and anal cleft; 2) quite strong setae, subequal in length with type 1) but slightly broader; each seta with parallel sides, with a truncate and flattened apex, and with a large basal socket about twice as broad as that of type 1), each socket with 2–8 small pores; with 10–16 setae anteriorly on head and prothorax, 0–3 setae between stigmatic clefts, and 4–10 setae on either side of abdomen near anal cleft. Stigmatic clefts deep; stigmatic spines bluntly spinose and mainly curved apically, with 4 or 5 spines in each anterior cleft and 5–8 spines in each posterior cleft; length of each 34–62 µm, and the median 1–3 spines longer than the lateral spines.
Venter. Derm membranous. Antennae 8 segmented, each 346–378 µm long, the third segment longest; with 2 pairs of long setae and 2 or 3 pairs of short interantennal setae. Clypeolabral shield 138–160 µm long, 160–172 µm wide; labium 96–112 µm long, 84–112 µm wide. Legs well-developed, each with a tibio-tarsal articulation and articulatory sclerosis; claws with a denticle on widest part, claw digitules both broad and expanded apically; tarsal digitules slender, knobbed and longer than claw digitules; trochanter+femur 212–245 µm, tibia 136–188 µm and tarsus 54–75 µm. With 2 pairs of long pregenital setae present in both segments VI & VII; submarginal setae present in a single row; other setae slender, 6–20 µm long, quite sparsely distributed. Spiracles normal; spiracular disc-pores each mainly with 5 loculi, present in a broad band between stigmatic cleft and each spiracle. Pregenital disc-pores each mainly with 10 loculi, present around the vulva and on posterior 5 abdominal segments but becoming progressively less frequent anteriorly. Ventral microducts scattered. Ventral tubular ducts of 3 types present: 1) a duct with a short outer ductule and a fine inner filament with a minute terminal gland, present in a complete submarginal band; 2) a duct with a broad outer ductule, a stout inner ductule (as broad as outer ductule in some specimens) and with a well-developed terminal gland, present medially on thorax and anterior abdominal segments; and 3) a duct with a moderately long outer ductule, a thin inner ductule slightly longer than outer ductule, with a flower-shaped terminal gland, present medially on posterior abdominal segments and extending and mingling with marginal band of type 1) ducts.


China (Guangxi).


The specific epithet is taken from the type locality Beihai.


This new species resembles Megapulvinaria maskelli (Olliff) (data from Qin and Gullan 1992[1]) in having: (1) dorsal reticulations on the anal plates, and (2) 2 types of marginal setae of about same length. However, Megapulvinaria beihaiensis can be distinguished by following features (character states of Megapulvinaria maskelli in brackets): (1) more than 3 stigmatic spines in each stigmatic cleft (only 3); (2) having dorsal tubular ducts (absent); (3) lacking preopercular pores (present); (4) eyespots displaced onto the dorsum (on the margin); and (5) the marginal setae of much broader basal socket often present between stigmatic clefts (absent).
Megapulvinaria maskelli, currently only known from the Australian region, is the only non-Oriental species in this genus and has some distinctive characteristics within Megapulvinaria. It differs from other species in having: (1) only 3 stigmatic spines in each stigmatic cleft; (2) eyespots located on margin; and (3) the discal setae possibly on outer margin of anal plates.

Original Description

  • Wang, F; Feng, J; 2012: A review of the genus Megapulvinaria Young (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from China, with a description of a new species ZooKeys, 228: 59-68. doi

Other References

  1. Qin T, Gullan P (1992) A revision of the Australian pulvinariine soft scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History 26: 103-164. doi: 10.1080/00222939200770061