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Liolaemus wari Aguilar & Wood Jr & Cusi & Guzmán & Huari & Lundberg & Mortensen & Ramírez & Robles & Suárez & Ticona & Vargas & Venegas & Sites Jr, 2013 sp. n. – Wikispecies link – ZooBank link – Pensoft Profile
- Liolaemus walkeri Lobo and Espinoza 1999
- Liolaemus walkeri Martínez Oliver and Lobo 2002
- Liolaemus walkeri Lobo, Quinteros and Díaz Gómez 2007
- Liolaemus walkeri Quinteros 2012
- Liolaemus walkeri Ocampo, Aguilar-Kirigin and Quinteros 2012
MUSM 30837, adult male collected at Abra Toccto, Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Department, Peru, 13.345S, 74.167W, elevation 4231 m, on 4 June 2012 by César Aguilar and Víctor Vargas.
Three males (MUSM 30823, BYU 50184, 50185) and ten females (MUSM 30824, 30825, 30826, 30827, 30828, 30831, BYU 50186, 50187, 50191, 50243) from the same locality as the holotype. Two males (MUSM 30830, 30834) and three females (MUSM 30829, BYU 50188, 50190) from high area above the Historic Sanctuary Pampas, Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Department, on 3 June 2012 by César Aguilar and Víctor Vargas (see Data resources for elevations and coordinates). Two males (MUSM 25703, 25704) and one female (MUSM 25702) from Yanacocha Lake, La Mar Province, Ayacucho Department, on 24 November 2010 by Margarita Medina (see Data resources for elevations and coordinates). Two females (MUSM 25719, BYU 50189) from Huaychao, Huamanga Province, Ayacucho Department, on 1 December 2010 by Margarita Medina (see Data resources for elevations and coordinates). Two females (MUSM 30243, 30244) from Tambo, San Miguel Province, Ayacucho Department, by Michael Harvey. One male (MUSM 31411) and two juveniles (BYU 50235-36) from about 45 Km west Puquio-Cusco roadway, Lucanas Province, Ayacucho Department, on 11 June 2012 by César Aguilar and Víctor Vargas (see Data resources for elevations and coordinates).
Small (61.4 mm maximum SVL), slender Liolaemus, closely related to Liolaemus chavin sp. n., Liolaemus pachacutec sp. n., Liolaemus tacnae and Liolaemus walkeri (Fig. 1). It differs from Liolaemus chavin sp. n., Liolaemus pachacutec sp. n. and Liolaemus walkeri in having a ringed pattern on the ventral tail of adult males. It differs from Liolaemus pachacutec sp. n. in having spots in the lateral fields. Liolaemus wari differs from Liolaemus tacnae and Liolaemus chavin in having precloacal pores in males. In comparison with other species assigned to the Liolaemus alticolor group, Liolaemus wari sp. n. differs from Liolaemus chaltin in having precloacal pores in males. It differs from Liolaemus paulinae in lacking keeled neck scales. It differs from Liolaemus puna, Liolaemus alticolor and Liolaemus incaicus in having black spots on belly of adult males. It differs from Liolaemus aparicioi in lacking keeled temporal scales. It differs from Liolaemus bitaeniatus and Liolaemus pagaburoi in having a smooth dorsal surface of the head (rough to slightly dorsal surface of the head). It differs from Liolaemus pyriphlogos in the absence of red marks in the lateral field (red marks in the lateral fields present). It differs from Liolaemus variegatus in the absence of keeled temporal scales, rugose dorsal head scales and precloacal pores in females.
Description of holotype
Adult male; SVL 55.4 mm; head length 11.4 mm; head width 9.8 mm; head height 6.2 mm; axilla–groin distance 23.3 mm (42% of SVL); foot length 15.0 mm. (27.1% of SVL); tail length 83.7 mm. (1.5 times SVL).
Dorsal head scales 14, dorsal head scales smooth, scale organs more abundant in loreal and supralabial regions. Five scale organs on postrostral. Nasal scale in contact with rostral, separated from first supralabial by one scale, nasal bordered by seven scales; canthus separated from nasal by one scale. Four supralabials. Five lorilabials scales and two in contact with the subocular. Four infralabials. Auditory meatus oval (height 2.0 mm, width 1.9 mm), with two small, projecting scales on anterior margin. Seven convex, smooth temporals (counting vertically from buccal commissure to posterior corner of orbit). Orbit–auditory meatus distance 4.6 mm. Orbit–anterior margin of rostral distance 7.9 mm. Rostral almost three times wider than high (width 2.7 mm; height 1.0 mm). Mental subpentagonal, about two times as wide as high (width 2.6 mm; height 1.2 mm). Interparietal pentagonal with an elongated posterior apex, bordered by seven scales, the parietal slightly smaller. Frontal trapezoidal. Supraorbital semicircles complete on both sides. Semicircles formed by 6 scales. Four enlarged supraoculars. Five distinctly imbricate superciliaries on both sides. Eleven upper and lower ciliaries. Subocular elongate, 3.2 mm, longer than eye diameter (2.3 mm; measured between anterior and posterior commissure of ciliaries), separated from supralabials by a single, but interrupted row of lorilabials. Second supralabial elongate, 1.6 mm. Five lorilabials with single and double rows of scale organs. Fifth and fourth lorilabials contacting subocular. Preocular small, separated from lorilabial row by one scale. Postocular as large as preocular. Mental in contact with four scales: first infralabials (on each side) and two enlarged chin shields. Chin shields forming a longitudinal row of three enlarged scales separated one from the other by six smaller scales. Scales of throat round, flat, and imbricate. Twenty-one gulars between auditory meatus. Longitudinal neck fold without keeled scales and smaller in size than dorsal scales. Antehumeral pocket and antehumeral neck fold well developed. Twenty-nine scales between auditory meatus and shoulder (counting along postauricular and longitudinal neck fold), 21 scales between auditory meatus and antehumeral neck fold. Gular folds absent.
Dorsal scales rhomboidal, keeled, and imbricate. Forty-four dorsal scales between occiput and level of groin. Fifty-three scales around midbody. Twenty-two rows of keeled scales on dorsum at midtrunk. Scales becoming smooth along flank and toward belly. Ventral scales slightly wider than dorsals. Seventy-three ventral scales between mental and precloacal pores. Five precloacal pores. Supracarpals laminar, round, and smooth. Subdigital lamellae of fingers with three keels, in number I: 8; II: 12; III: 16; IV: 16; V: 10 (right fingers). Claws moderately long. Supradigital lamellae convex, smooth, and imbricate. Infracarpals and infratarsals keeled, distinctly imbricate. Supratarsals smooth. Subdigital lamellae of toes I: 8; II: 12; III: 16; IV: 20; V: 13 (left toes).
Color pattern in preservation
Dorsal background color from occiput to base of tail brownish-green. Black continuous vertebral line present. Dark paravertebral marks. Paravertebral and vertebral fields with same background color. Highly distinct creamy-yellow dorsalateral stripes. Large dark and small cream marks in lateral field. Cream ventrolateral stripe, beginning on the posterior corner of the eye, continuing across the upper auricular meatus, the longitudinal neck fold, through the shoulders, ending in the groin. Dark and cream small marks in the ventral field. Black spots on throat, femur, tibia, posterior third of belly and laterally in anterior two thirds of belly. Small and scattered dark marks in chest and anterior two thirds of belly. Tail with dark horizontal rows.
Color pattern in life
Head dorsally brown with black dots. Subocular cream. A black vertebral band with a thin yellow stripe on the middle. The vertebral band has a thin white stripe on each side. Paravertebral field with dark marks with posterior white dots. Creamy-yellow dorsolateral stripes. Lateral field with black marks separated by cream diagonal stripes. Yellowhish-white ventrolateral stripe, beginning on upper margin of eye, continuing from auricular meatus, the longitudinal neck fold, through the shoulders, ending in the groin. Ventrolateral similar to lateral field and same color as the paravertebral field, with diffuse dorsal markings. Forelimbs, chest and belly yellowish-white with scattered and diffuse black dots. Black marks on hind limbs, throat, and posterior third of belly. Tail with black horizontal bands separated by white bands.
The variation in morphological characters is shown in Tables 1–4. There is sexual dichromatism. Males have white or yellow belly and throat covered completely with black spots, yellowish belly and throat with black spots on posterior third of belly, or a melanistic belly on posterior third and cloacal region, with black dots on a white throat; females have white belly and yellowish throat with faint black dots, yellowish belly and throat with faint black spots, or yellowish belly and throat without spots. Adult males have white, yellowish and yellow tails with a conspicuous ringed pattern; adult females have white, yellowish or reddish ventral tails with or without a faint ringed pattern.
The specific epithet wari refers to the pre-Inca culture Wari (600–850 AD), which had its center close to the type locality. The species name is in the nominative singular.
Distribution and natural history
Liolaemus wari sp. n. is known from seven localities in the central Andes, at elevations of 3768–4246 m in Ayacucho Department in eastern southern Peru (Fig. 11).
Liolaemus wari sp. n. was active on the ground or found under rocks in grassland (Fig. 10) and shrubland habitats. It was found in sympatry with another Liolaemus species belonging to the Liolaemus montanus series and the snake Tachymenis peruviana. This species is probably viviparous; three females each showed three uterine chambers per side; each chamber showed yolk, but with no developed embryos or visible shell.
- Aguilar, C; Wood Jr, P; Cusi, J; Guzmán, A; Huari, F; Lundberg, M; Mortensen, E; Ramírez, C; Robles, D; Suárez, J; Ticona, A; Vargas, V; Venegas, P; Sites Jr, J; 2013: Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae) with descriptions of three new species from Peru ZooKeys, 364: 47-91. doi