|Notice:||This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.
If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.
This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Citation formats to copy and paste
TY - JOUR
See also the citation download page at the journal.
Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks, 1910) – Wikispecies link – Pensoft Profile
- Allochrysa pretiosa Banks  (1910: 150) original description: [Colombia] “Inmba, Cauca, 1,000 meters, January (Fassl)”. Navas (1913: 157) comparison with Allochrysa colombia Banks and Allochrysa varia.
- Leucochrysa pretiosa (Banks). Navas (1917: 279) first reference to combination; Banks (1944: 31) collection records; Banks (1945: 167-168) comparison with Leucochrysa varia and Leucochrysa vulnerata (Navas), synonymy of Leucochrysa variata (Navas), Leucochrysa delicata Navas, Leucochrysa angrandi (Navas) with Leucochrysa pretiosa, collection records; Banks (1948: 169) collection record; Penny (1977: 23) species list; Adams (1979: 97) species list, record from Mexico considered doubtful.
- Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa (Banks). Brooks and Barnard (1990: 276) subgeneric determination, species list; Freitas and Penny (2001: 281, 353, fig. 42) brief redescription, collection records, figures -- based on misidentified specimens in the FCAV-UNESP, not Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa; Penny (2002: 194, figs 60-62) brief diagnosis, collection records in Costa Rica, drawings of head, wings; Valencia Luna et al. (2006: 48) collection records, image -- species identification unconfirmed; Oswald (2007) catalog listing.
- Allochrysa angrandi Navas  (1911: 278) original description: “Guatemala. Angrand leg.”. Navas (1917: 279, angrandi not specifically mentioned) genus synonymized with Leucochrysa; Penny (1977: 23, as Allochrysa angrandi and Allochrysa angradi) listing as synonyms of Leucochrysa pretiosa; Legrand et al. (2008: 113) lectotype designation, taxonomic notes.
- Leucochrysa angrandi (Navas). Banks (1945: 167) first reference to combination, synonymy with Leucochrysa pretiosa; Penny (1977: 23, as Leucochrysa angradi) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa pretiosa; Adams (1979: 97) listing as a valid species, without comment, probable occurrence in Mexico; Brooks and Barnard (1990: 276) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa, without comment; Oswald (2007) catalog listing, as a synonym of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa.
- Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi (Navas). Valid status reinstated. See below.
- Allochrysa variata Navas  (1912-1913: 315) original description: “Panama: V. de Chiriqui, 25-400 ft., Champion; Mexique: Cuesta de Misantla, M. Trujillo”. Penny (1977: 23, as Allochrysa varieta) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa pretiosa.
- Leucochrysa variata (Navas). Navas (1917: 279) first reference to combination; Banks (1945: 167) synonymy with Leucochrysa pretiosa; Penny (1977: 23, as Leucochrysa varieta) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa pretiosa; Brooks and Barnard (1990: 276) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa.
- Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) variata (Navas). Valid status reinstated. See below.
- Leucochrysa delicata Navas  (1925: 190, fig. 18) original description: “Costa Rica: Reventazon, 15 de Marzo de 1923. Janson et Sons. Col. m.”. Banks (1945: 167) synonymy with Leucochrysa pretiosa; Adams (1979: 97) species list, note regarding absence of type; Brooks and Barnard (1990; 276) listing as a synonym of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa; Oswald (2007) catalog listing of Leucochrysa delicata and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) delicata as synonyms of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa. Neotype designation below.
- Leucochrysa erminea Banks  (1945: 169) original description: “Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, August (F. H. Hull) Type M.C.Z. no. 25657”. Penny (1977: 22) species list; Adams (1979: 97) species list.
- Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea Banks. Brooks and Barnard (1990: 276) subgeneric determination, species list; Oswald (2007) catalog listing. Syn. n.
Known geographical distribution
Southern Mexico,northern to southern Central America, the Caribbean region, and northern region of South America (Venezuela, central Ecuador, and western Colombia) [based on confirmed published records and specimens examined]. Mexico: Chiapas. Belize: Cayo District. Costa Rica: Provinces of Cartago, Puntarenas. Panama: Canal Zone. Trinidad & Tobago: Trinidad Island. Venezuela: States of Amazonas, Aragua, Carabobo, Falcon, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Portuguesa, Tachira, Yaracuy, Capital District. Colombia: Department of Valle del Cauca. Ecuador: Provinces ofEsmeraldas,Napo, Pichincha. Paraguay: Department of Caaguazu. The treatment of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa by Freitas and Penny (2001: 281) was based on misidentified specimens in the FCAV-UNESP; thus, their distribution records were not included here.
Banks’ (1945: 168) records from Central America (Barro Colorado, Canal Zone; El Cermeno and La Campana, Panama; Cayuga, Volcan [prob. Volcan] Sta. Marta, and Alta Vera Paz, Guatemala; Limon [prob. Limon], Costa Rica) and his records from Colombia (Banks 1944: 31) are all well within the confirmed range of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa. We have seen specimens from most of the areas he reported; however, we have not examined his specimens. The northern-most specimen of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa that we have seen is from Chiapas, Mexico. Valencia Luna et al. (2006: 48) also reported the species from Morelos, Mexico; however, we have not seen specimens to confirm the report. The southern-most record is based on a single specimen, with somewhat obscure data that we interpreted as referring to the Mennonite Colony of Sommerfeld, ca 210 km east of Asuncion, Paraguay. This locality is far south of the second southern-most record for the species (north-central Ecuador).
Type specimens and rationale for taxonomic changes
Allochrysa pretiosa. Two syntypes from “Inmbo”, Cauca, Colombia, MCZ (one female, one with abdomen missing, examined).
Here, to stabilize the nomenclature of this taxonomically difficult group of lacewings, we recognize the specimen with an abdomen (female) as the Lectotype [present designation].
Its labels read: (1) “Inmbo Cauca / Colombia S. Am.” [Banks’ hand]; (2) “1000 m / Jan” [Banks’ hand]; (3) “Collection / N. Banks”; (4) “Type” [red, Banks’ hand]; (5) “Type / 12005”; (6) “Allochrysa / pretiosa / type / Bks” [white, red border, Banks’ hand]; (7) “LECTOTYPE / Allochrysa pretiosa / Banks, 1910 des. / C. A. Tauber 2013” [red]. The specimen is in fairly good condition; the terminalia are in a vial with glycerine. Images, in addition to Fig. 15 here, are in the MCZ Type Database (http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu/MCZ/index.htm). The remaining type is now labelled as a paralectotype. “Cauca” probably refers to the Valle del Cauca, which is in southwestern Colombia. We could not locate an “Inmba” (spelling in original description), “Inmbo” (spelling on lectotype label and by Banks 1944: 31), or “Jumba” (spelling by Navas 1913: 158); we suspect that these names are all misspellings of Yumbo, a town near Cali, Valle del Cauca Department.
Allochrysa angrandi. Lectotype, designated by Legrand et al. (2008: 113), MNHN (female, examined).
From his discussion, it appears that Banks (1945: 167) did not see the type of Allochrysa angrandi; even so, he suggested that the species was synonymous with Leucochrysa pretiosa and, with one exception (Adams 1979: 97), it has been treated as synonymous. Our comparison of the lectotypes of the two species (both females) indicates that they are distinct [compare Fig. 15 with Figs 17–18]. Indeed, the Allochrysa angrandi lectotype lacks some characteristics of the varia-like species that we have examined. For example, it appears to have red lateral stripes on the prothorax (Figs 16C–E), no suffusion on the forewing crossveins, and the base of the forewing lacks dark markings (Fig. 16I). In addition, the fifth and sixth tergites of the cleared abdomen (Fig. 17) lack the large spots that are typical of varia-like species. This characteristic sometimes is not visible in cleared varia-like specimens, especially teneral ones, and thus its absence from the Allochrysa angrandi type is not definitive for excluding the species from the group. This species will be re-described elsewhere.
Allochrysa variata. Lectotype by present designation, BMNH (male, examined).
In his original description, Navas (1912-1913: 315) mentioned two localities; thus, it is clear that he had more than one specimen of this species. We have found only one–the one from Panama (a male in the BMNH). To stabilize the nomenclature of this taxonomically difficult group of lacewings, we designate this specimen as the Lectotype [present designation]. Its labels read: (1) “V. De Chiriqui, / 25–1000 ft. / Champion.”; (2) “Godman-Salvin / Collection / 1911–24.”; (3) “Typus” [pink, hand-written, Navas]; (4) “Allochrysa / variata Nav. / Navas S.J. det.” [hand-written, Navas & printed]; (5) “Type / H.T.” [round, with red border]; (6) “LECTOTYPE / Allochrysa variata / Navas, 1913 des. / C.A. Tauber 2013” [red]. The specimen is discolored with age, but otherwise in reasonably good condition; the terminalia are in a vial with glycerine. Banks (1945: 167) suggested that Allochrysa variata was synonymous with Leucochrysa pretiosa, and it was subsequently treated as such. However, our comparison of the Allochrysa variata male lectotype with specimens of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa indicates that the two are distinct [compare Figs 19–21 (variata) with Figs 22–24 (pretiosa)]. This species will be re-described elsewhere. Leucochrysa delicata. Type apparently missing, sex unknown (not examined).
In the original description, Navas stated that he retained the type in his personal collection; it is not there now (Monserrat 1985: 240), nor was it found at the MNHN or the BMNH. Presumably, it is lost (see Adams 1979: 97). Given the collection site of the type (Costa Rica), it is possible that it was either Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) angrandi or Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa. Because Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is the more common and therefore most likely of the two, we have no basis for altering Banks’ synonymy; thus it pertains. To help stabilize the taxonomy of this taxonomically difficult group of Leucochrysa, we designate a female specimen in the William F. Barr Entomological Collection (UID), University of Idaho, as the Neotype. This specimen is from Turrialba, a locality in the Reventazon River basin of Costa Rica; its labels read: (1) “COSTA RICA. Cart. / Turrialba, CATIE / 26-29 Jun 1986 / Nadeer Youssef”, (2) “NEOTYPE” / Leucochrysa delicata / Navas, 1925 des. / Tauber et al. 2013”; (3) “Leucochrysa (L.) / pretiosa Banks / det. C. A. Tauber 2013”.
Leucochrysa erminea Banks. Holotype by original designation, MCZ (sex unknown, abdomen missing, examined). No other type material was found in the MCZ (P. D. Perkins, personal communication).
Banks (1945: 169) did not compare his type of Leucochrysa erminea with the Leucochrysa pretiosa specimens that he had described many years earlier. He was probably unaware of the variation in body color expressed by this species. We make the synonymy on the basis of external features, notably the wings, which are almost identical on the Allochrysa pretiosa and Leucochrysa erminea types [See images in MCZ Type Database (http://insects.oeb.harvard.edu/MCZ/index.htm)]. In addition, Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa is the most common species of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia-like lacewings in Panama [the type locality of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) erminea].
Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa expresses the external features listed above for the “varia-like” species. In addition, both Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa and Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia have notable variation in head and thoracic coloration, black shading around the second m-cu crossvein and the distal Psm-Psc crossveins. Although examination of the genitalia is essential for accurate identification of the varia-like species, these two species often can be separated externally on the basis of wing characteristics. Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa generally has a lighter brown mark on the stigma, a larger, rounded patch of shading around the distal leg of the im1, and slightly more shading around the basal outer gradate veins, second m-cu crossvein, and distal Psm-Psc crossvein than does Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia. In general, the distal gradate veins and shaded veins of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia are darker (brown or black) than those of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa.
The males of Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa are distinguished by: (i) sternite S3 with microtholi usually present only posterolaterally, rarely anterolaterally or posteromesally [both of which occur in Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia]; (ii) much smaller genital structures [gonarcal span of 0.40–0.65 mm; cf., 0.67–0.84 mm in Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia]; (iii) gonarcal bridge straight between gonocornua and bent at the interior margin of the gonocornua [not gently curved throughout as in Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia]; (iv) basal section of mediuncus broad [extending laterally well beyond gonocornua], leathery, rigid membrane, not a light, flexible membrane as in Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia; (v) gonarcus with a pair of slender ventral processes between the lateral apodemes and gonocornua [absent from Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia]. Female Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa have a very distinctive, bowl-shaped spermatheca, with a relatively short spermathecal duct.
Head (Fig. 22): 1.7–1.9 mm wide (including eyes). Frons, clypeus white, red suffused, or entirely red; gena pink to dark red; maxillary and labial palpi yellowish. Vertex with central area raised, yellowish to green, with prominent, dark red to dark brown, V-shaped mark along anterior margin; lateral margins with narrow to wide stripes; post-ocular area with red spot. Antenna: scape tinged with red-wine coloration, especially mesally; pedicel yellowish green, inner margin with dark mark; flagellum cream-colored, with amber bristles; inner margin of basal ca three flagellomeres tinged with black; dorsal antennal fossae marked with red laterally.
Thorax (Fig. 22):Cervix with red mark laterally. Pronotum 1.1–1.5 mm long, 1.2–1.4 mm wide, yellowish green, unmarked. Mesonotum, metanotum variable, entirely dark brown to yellow with brown marks of various sizes. Posterior margin of mesoscutum with prominent dark brown, transverse stripe; metascutum with small or large brown marks; mesoscutellum, metascutellum yellow to light green, without marks.
Wings (Fig. 9A–B) Forewing 18.5–21.8 mm long, 7.2–7.9 mm wide (at widest point); ratio of length: maximum width = 2.51–2.75:1. Costal area moderately broad; tallest costal cell (#8–10) 1.6–1.9 mm tall, 2.4–2.8 times width, 0.2–0.3 times width of wing (midwing). First intramedian cell quadrangular, width (anterior margin) 1.5–2.0 times width (anterior margin) of m3, 1.0–1.2 times length of posterior margin of m3, length of basal vein (= ma, median arculus) 2.0–3.8 times greater than length of distal vein. First radial crossvein distal to origin of radial sector (Rs); radial area (between Radius and Rs) with single row of 15–19 closed cells; tallest cell (#7–10) 1.72–2.80 times taller than wide. No crassate veins; 5–6 b cells (= cells beneath Rs, not including an inner gradate vein). Two series of gradate veins; 8–10 inner gradates, 8–10 outer gradates. Height of fourth gradate cell 3.5–5.5 times width. Seven to eight b’ cells (cells beneath pseudomedia after im2). Three intracubital cells (two closed). Membrane mostly clear except basal area marked with reddish brown, stigma opaque, with large dark brown mark basally, dark clouding around second m-cu crossvein and around distal Psm–Psc crossveins, sometimes with clouding around distal leg of im1 and around crossveins between distal b’ cells. Veins mostly green, except basal costal crossveins, base of Radius, ca three radial crossveins, distal Psm–Psc crossveins, outer gradates, and forks of marginal veins usually entirely black; costal crossveins with black tips; inner gradates, posterior crossveins of distal b’ cells mostly black. Hindwing 16.4–19.4 mm long, 5.5–6.7 mm wide. Two series of gradate veins; 7–10 inner, 7–9 outer; 15–17 radial cells (counted from origin of Radius, not false origin). Five to six b cells (including small b1 cell); seven b’ cells beyond im2; two intracubital cells (one closed). Membrane clear; stigma with pronounced brown mark basally. Veins mostly light green; outer gradates, tips of costal crossveins brown to black.
Abdomen (Figs 15, 23–26): Tergites with mostly short, slender setae throughout, sternites with longer, slender setae; microsetae dense; pleural region with setae small, very sparse, microsetae very small. Tergites narrow, roughly rectangular, with rounded or irregular margins. Spiracles oval externally; atria not enlarged. Sternites S2–3 longer than wide; S5–7 more square-shaped (lateral view); distal segments (beyond A4) expanded, height of pleural region greater than height of sternites [integument of cleared specimens soft, floppy, easily damaged]. Coloration: mostly green, with yellow mesally. Tergites T5, T6 with large black spots, bordered by red; callus cerci white; setae, trichobothria golden. Male. Height and length of S6 ca equal, S7 height ca 1.1–1.2 times length (lateral view). Microtholi dense on S4–S8, usually sparse, only present distolaterally on S3 (rarely, a few microtholi along posteromesal edge), absent from S1–2, S9. Callus cerci slightly oval (ca 1.2–1.3? taller than wide), diameter 0.16–0.23 mm, with 28–38 trichobothria of variable length. T9+ectoproct soft, lightly sclerotized, rounded posterodorsally, truncate to rounded distally, broadly fused mesally, midline with small distal cleft; ventral section rounded, tapering proximally, extending proximally only to suture line between fused S8 and S9 (dorsal margin); dorsal apodeme lightly to moderately sclerotized, straight, with two dorsal forks before callus cerci, curving along ventral margin of ectoproct to terminus; first branch of dorsal apodeme extending posterodorsally to level midway up callus cerci; second branch extending around proximal, dorsal and posterodistal margins of callus cerci. S8+9 fused, with trace of suture dorsally, with clear intersegmental demarcation throughout; S8 1.6–2.0? taller than long, less than one-half (0.36–0.45?) length of S8+9; S8+9 (lateral view) with proximal margin slightly convex, dorsal surface gradually curving ventrally over 3/4ths distance from proximal margin, then curving steeply to terminus; terminus without knob or gonocristae; membrane above terminus with pair of large, eversible, membranous pouches. Gonarcus well sclerotized, arcuate, total span: 0.40–0.65 mm; bridge broad, straight mesally, curved abruptly at interior margin of gonocornua, dorsoventrally flattened, distance between apodemes 0.30–0.36 mm; lateral apodeme bell-shaped, broader ventrally than dorsally (0.32–0.36 mm wide, 0.18–0.19 mm tall); gonocornua extending from lateral edge of gonarcal bridge, basally stout, tapering to narrow, rounded apex, length 0.08–0.13 mm; distance between inner bases of gonocornua 0.08–0.13 mm, distance between tips 0.11–0.16 mm. Gonarcus, between lateral apodeme and gonocornu, with moderately sclerotized, elongate posteroventral processus with membrane attached. Mediuncus with basal section consisting of broad, leathery, membranous plate extending from distal margin of gonarcal bridge, recurving below gonarcal bridge; distal section of mediuncus consisting of heavily sclerotized, flat, broadly V-shaped plate, below and well separated from gonarcus; distal plate with mesal beak extending ventrally, deep mesal trough dorsally, between rounded, lateral ridges that extend above beak; membrane below gonarcus forming deep pouch with two fields of three to six stout gonosetae on chalazae; fields of gonosetae on surface of membrane facing mediuncus. Hypandrium internum: arm 0.20–0.24 mm long, distal span between arms 0.17–0.24 mm.
Female. Height of S6 ca 0.62–0.70 times length, S7 height ca 0.51–0.57 times length. Callus cerci round, diameter ca 0.15 mm, with 24–28 trichobothria. Tergite T8 roughly quadrate (lateral view) with rounded corners, similar in depth to T6. T9+ectoproct elongate, slanting anteriorly; ventral margin convex, extending slightly below level of gonapophyses laterales. Dorsal margin of S7 straight, tapering abruptly distally; terminus unmodified, with terminal (posteroventral) setae slightly more numerous, longer than in other areas. Gonapophysis lateralis rounded throughout, ca 0.53–0.58 times height of T9+ectoproct; inner membranous surface slightly expandable, with vertical patch of small, delicate setae arising from slightly swollen membrane. Colleterial complex consisting of membranous gland connected to colleterial reservoir via broad duct, and elongate, ribbon-like accessory gland, both opening to exterior via narrow ducts above transverse sclerite; colleterial gland elongate, robust; colleterial reservoir shorter, robust; accessory gland narrow, elongate, granular, forked distally; transverse sclerite broad, flat to slightly convex, with broad, robust teeth. Spermatheca bowl-shaped basally (0.3–0.4 mm width x 0.2 mm height), with invagination tubular, extending around wall of spermathecal bowl; distal, tubular section of spermatheca broad, convoluted with ca 10 complete loops; spermathecal duct short, ca 0.8 mm including membranous, brushy, distal section, with single short, well sclerotized loop basally, longer, lightly sclerotized, brushy loop distally. Bursa copulatrix saccular, with heavily textured surface near bursal duct, becoming smoother posteriorly; bursal duct membranous, broad, flat, folded, spinose basally (near spermathecal velum), becoming broader, granulose, with patches of small, then large, robust pegs distally (near base of bursa); pair of elongate, tubular bursal glands attached to base of each side of bursa via enlarged, granular, conical bases. Subgenitale with smooth (unfolded), rounded surface, with bilobed projection dorsally, ca two times wider distally than at base, midsection with prominent lobe extending outward at ca 90° angle to subgenitale surface.
Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) pretiosa expresses considerable variation in head, mesothoracic and metathoracic coloration, as well as wing size, shape and degree of suffusion on various veins. The range of variation in several of these traits is shown on Figs 9 and 22. As in Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia, the expansion of abdominal segments 4–9 and the degree of sclerotization of the apodemes and sclerites varies considerably among specimens (see Figs 23, 25). This variation may be related in part to age and/or maturation; however, both male and female specimens with large, expanded (apparently mature) abdomens often had very soft and delicate integuments that tore easily during dissection. Thus, a delicate integument may not necessarily be associated with a teneral status.
(in addition to the types listed above). MEXICO. Chiapas: San Jeronimo, Tacana, 6.ix.1970, T. W. Taylow Colln. (1>, LACM). BELIZE. Belize: 1 mi. N. Sibun R., 14 mi. N. Belize City, in cork forest, 5.vii.1973, Y. Sedman (1>,CAS); Cayo: 5 mi. N. San Ignacio, 12–13.xii.1988, F. D. Parker (1+, USU). COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Golfito, 23.vii.1957, Truxel & Menke (1+, LACM); Golfito-United Fruit Co., 2.vii.1976, Malaise trap 8A-5P, M. Wasbauer (1>, SDCM). NICARAGUA. No department: Eden [14°0'N, 84°26'W] (locality not confirmed), Th. W. Bouchelle (1>, PNAS, det. by N. Banks). PANAMA. Canal Zone: Pipeline Road, 22.iii.1982, W. J. Hanson (1+, USU); Barro Colorado Island, 14.ii.1955, C. W. Rettenmeyer (1+, SEM); idem, 9.i.1929, C. H. Curran (1+, AMNH). TRINIDAD & TOBAGO. Trinidad Island: St Andrew Parish, Brigand Hill, 21.vii.1979, L. Sorkin (1+, AMNH); Arima Valley, 800–1200 ft, 5–15.ii.1965, J. G. Rozen (1+, AMNH); Arima Valley, 4.ii.1953, J. G. Rozen (1+, AMNH); “Naracas” [= “Maracas”] Valley, 18.v–10.vi.1957, ROM party (1+, ROM); Simla Res. Sta., 2–15.vi.1961, Hanson, Clemons (3>, 1+, USU). VENEZUELA. Amazonas: Cerro de la Neblina Basecamp, 140 m, 0°50'N, 66°9'44"W, 13–20.ii.1984, D. Davis & T. McCabe (1+, USNM); idem, 3.ii.1985, on low foilage, rainforest trail, W. E. Steiner (1+, USNM); Aragua: Parque Nacional Henri Pittier (formerly Parque Nacional Rancho Grande), 1100 m, 7.iii.1959, C. J. Rosales (1+, MIZA); idem, 1–5.i.1966, S. S. & W. D. Duckworth (1+, USNM); idem, 11–15.i.1966, S. S. & W. D. Duckworth (1+, USNM); 1 km S. Rancho Grande, 5.ii.1976, C. M. & O. S. Flint, Jr. (1>, USNM); Ocumare [1123099N - 0547148W], 100 m, 20.ii.2008, F. Sosa, F. Diaz & R. Zuniga (1>, UCOB); Capital District: Caracas, R. M. Bartleman (1+, USNM); Carabobo: San Esteban, Las Quiguas, 185 m, 5–8.x.1974, J. Salcedo, R. Dietz & J. L. Garcia (1>, 1+, MIZA); Yuma, 13.v.1980, F. Fernandez Y & A. Chacon (without abdomen, MIZA); nr Canoabo, 850 m, 24.i.1983, O. S. Flint, Jr. (5>, 6+, USNM); Falcon: Sierra de San Luis, Valle de Acarite, 980 m, 15.vii.1983, J. Lattke (1>, MIZA); Lara: Parque Nacional Yacambu, El Blanquito, 1100 m, 19.i.2011, F. Sosa & J. Torres (2+, UCOB); Santa Rosa de la Fila, Finca Dos Aguas, 1300 m, 5–8.iii.2011, H. Chavez & A. Chavez (1+, UCOB); Parque Nacional Terepaima, 1100 m, 12.i.2012, F. Sosa & D. R. R. Fernandes (1+, UCOB); Merida: El Pedregal, 200 m, 22.i.2009, F. Sosa & F. Diaz (2+, UCOB); idem, 25.i.2009, F. Sosa & F. Diaz (1>, 3+, UCOB); Miranda: Parque Nacional Guatopo, km 24 N. Altagracia de Orituco, 640 m, 5–9.v.1975, malaise trap, J. Salcedo & R. Dietz (1>, 2 without abdomen, MIZA); Portuguesa: Araure, Finca Barra de Oro [9°36'N, 69°19W], 310 m, 11.i.2008, F. Sosa & A. Lopez (1>, 1+, UCOB); La Estacion, Los Borbollones [9°22'N, 69°28'W], 310 m, 26.xii.2007, F. Sosa (1+, UCOB); Tachira: Paramillo, UNET, 1050 m, 23.vii.2007, F. Sosa & F. Diaz (1>, UCOB); Yaracuy: San Felipe, Hacienda Guaquira [10°17'N, 68°39 W], 100 m, 14.ii. 2010, F. Sosa & J. Torres (2>, 2+, UCOB); idem, 13.i.2012, F. Sosa & D.R.R Fernandes (2>, 1+, UCOB). ECUADOR. Esmeraldas: Parr. San Mateo, 4.v.1956 (1>, CAS, bought from F. H. Walz, PAA); Napo: Misahualli nr. Tena, 26.viii–2.ix.2000, S. & P. Keller (1>, USU). Pichincha: E. Sto. Domingo, 8–16.v.1988, Hanson & Bohart (1+, USU). PARAGUAY. No district: Summerfield, 7.x.1965, rec MAZ, A. C. Allyn, Acc. 1969–20 (1+, FMNH). [The locality in Paraguay probably is the Sommerfeld (Mennonite) Colony in Caaguazu Department.]
- Tauber, C; Sosa, F; Albuquerque, G; 2013: Two common and problematic leucochrysine species – Leucochrysa (Leucochrysa) varia (Schneider) and L. (L.) pretiosa (Banks) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): redescriptions and synonymies ZooKeys, 310: 57-101. doi
- ↑ Banks N (1910) New South American neuropteroid insects. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 12: 146-160.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Navas L (1913) Crisopidos sudamericanos. Broteria (Zoologica) 11: 73–104, 149–168.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Navas L (1917) Neue Neuropteren. Dritte [III] serie. Entomologische Mitteilungen 6: 274-282.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Banks N (1944) Neuroptera of northern South America. Part III. Chrysopidae. Boletin de Entomologia Venezolana 3: 1-34.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 Banks N (1945)  A review of the Chrysopidae (Nothochrysidae) of Central America. Psyche 52: 139-174. doi: 10.1155/1945/39092
- ↑ Banks N (1948)  Chrysopidae (Nothochrysidae) collected in Mexico by Dr. A. Dampf (Neuroptera). Psyche 55: 151-177. doi: 10.1155/1948/36576
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Penny N (1977)  Lista de Megaloptera, Neuroptera e Raphidioptera do Mexico, America Central, ilhas Caraibas e America do Sul. Acta Amazonica 7(4)(Suplemento): 1–61.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Adams P (1979) A new species of Leucochrysa from Mexico (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae). Folia Entomologica Mexicana 41: 95-101.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Brooks S, Barnard P (1990) The green lacewings of the world: a generic review (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History, Entomology 59: 117–286.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Freitas S, Penny N (2001) The green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) of Brazilian agro-ecosystems. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52: 245-395.
- ↑ Penny N (2002) Family Chrysopidae. In: Penny N (Ed.). A Guide to the Lacewings (Neuroptera) of Costa Rica. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 53: 187–227.
- ↑ 12.0 12.1 Valencia L, Romero N, Valdez C, Carrillo S, Lopez M (2006) Taxonomia y registros de Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) en el Estado de Morelos, Mexico [=Taxonomy and records of Chrysopidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) in the state of Morelos, Mexico]. Acta Zoologica Mexicana (NS) 22: 17-61.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Oswald J (2007) Neuropterida Species of the World. Version 2.0. http://lacewing.tamu.edu/species-catalogue/ [Last access: 01/01/2013]
- ↑ Navas L (1911) Chrysopides nouveaux (Ins Neur). Annales de la Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles 35: 266-282.
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 Legrand J, Tauber C, Albuquerque G, Tauber M (2008)  Navas’ type and non-type specimens of Chrysopidae in the MNHN, Paris [Neuroptera]. Revue Francaise d’Entomologie (NS) 30: 103-183.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 Navas L (1912–1913)  Les Chrysopides (Ins Nevr) du Musee de Londres [Ia]. Annales de la Societe Scientifique de Bruxelles 37: 292-330.
- ↑ Navas L (1925) Insectos exoticos nuevos o poco conocidos. Segunda [II] serie. Memorias de la Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona 19: 181-200.
- ↑ Monserrat V (1985) Lista de los tipos de Mecoptera y Neuroptera (Insecta) de la coleccion L. Navas, depositados en el Museo de Zoologia de Barcelona. Miscellania Zoologica 9: 233-243.