Leptosciarella pilosa

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Taxonavigation

Ordo: Diptera
Familia: Sciaridae
Genus: Leptosciarella

Name

Leptosciarella pilosa (Staeger, 1840)Wikispecies linkZooBank link

  • Sciara pilosa Staeger, 1840: 283[1]

Type material

Holotype ♂, in ZMUC.

Type locality

Denmark

Additional material examined

Austria: 1 ♂, Gesäuse National Park, Hartelsgraben, Bergsturzquellen, emergence trap, Gerecke, 05.07.2008, PKHH 7568; 1 ♂, Gesäuse National Park, Schröckgraben bei Ebneralmfurt, emergence trap, Gerecke, 07.06.2010, PKHH 7764; Germany: 1 ♂, Bavaria, National Park Berchtesgaden, Klaustal Grundübelau, Rheokrene NE Engert-Haus, emergence trap, Gerecke, 08.07.2009, PKHH 7573; 1 ♂, Quelle Herrenroint, photoeclector, Schrankel, 09.08.1996, SDEI 2270; 1 ♂, 29.06.1996, SDEI 2271; 1 ♂, 05.07.1996, SDEI 2435; </font>1 ♂, Schapbach, emergence trap, Schrankel, 14.06.1996, SDEI 2269; 1 ♂, Thuringia, Eberswalde, Ragöser Fließ, wet alder forest, sweep net, Menzel, 04.08.1989, SDEI 2432; 1 ♂, Breitenbach, Vessertal, emergence trap, Bellstedt, 12.06.1987, SDEI 2433; Finland: 1 ♂, Sa, Savonlinna, secondary mixed birch/spruce/pine/aspen forest, sweep netting, Jaschhof, 19.06.2004, PKHH 6445; 1 ♂, Taivalkoski, Ks, Poikaloukusenoja, Salmela, 03.07.2006, MZH 9199; Poland: 2 ♂, Wilkanow, Oldenberg, 03.08.1922, SDEI 2434, 2439; Russia: 2 ♂, Tuva, Ishtii Khem, Krivosheina, 04.07.1974, PWMP 1738; Sweden: 3 ♂, Småland, Gränna, Lönnemålen, next to old cellar; Norway spruce forest with big harvested ashes, Malaise trap, Swedish Malaise Trap Project, 10.-24.09.2003, NHRS 3635, 3636, 5100; 2 ♂, Uppland, Älvkarleby, Batfors, pine forest with blueberry, Malaise trap, Swedish Malaise Trap Project, 27.6.-01.07.2004, PKHH 7462, 7463 7 ♂, Östergötland, Omberg, Storpissan: old Norway spruce wood, Malaise trap, Swedish Malaise Trap, 28.5.-05.07.2005, PKHH 6584-6586, NHRS 2043-2045, 2092; Turkmenistan: 1 ♂ 1 ♀, Central Kopetdag, Ipai-Kala, Antonova, 28.05.1971, PWMP 1869 [as Leptosciarella juniperi in Mohrig & Menzel (1997[2]: 75)]; Ukraine: 3 ♂, Kvasy, mixed forest, Mamaev, 15.06.1963, PWMP 1743/1747/1748; 1 ♂, Zakarpatye near Rakhiv, Mamaev, 30.04.1966, PWMP 1741.

Description (male)

Head. Eye bridge 4–5 rows of facets. LW-index of 4th antennal flagellar segment 2.2–2.6; neck 0.3–0.34 of segment width; Transition of basal part to neck pronounced. Antennal hairs shorter than segment width; sparse; salient. Palps dark; long; palpomeres 3. First palpomere elongate; with 3–6 bristles; with only some sparse sensillae. Second palpomere elongate. Third palpomere as long as first segment. Thorax. Colour brown. Notum unicolorous. Thoracic setae normal; dark. Mesonotum with some weaker central bristles. Posterior pronotum setose. Postpronotal setae 4–6; strong. Laterotergite bare. Legs. Colour yellow. Hind coxae darkened. Hairs on fore coxae black. Frontal tibia with a patch of setae. Front tibial organ dark. Front tibial organ not bordered. Tibial setae on hind legs normal, shorter than tibial width. Tibial spurs of equal length. Claws untoothed. Wings. Wings slightly darkened; of normal shape. Wing membrane without macrotrichia. Wing venation weak, with faint m-base. M-fork of normal shape. R1 inserting at or slightly before base of m-fork; posterior veins with macrotrichia; stM mainly with macrotrichia; cuA1 and cuA2 mainly with macrotrichia; bM bare; r-m mostly setose; bM:r-M 1.1–1.4; st-Cu:bM 1.1–1.35; r1:r 1.5–1.8; C:w 0.7–0.8. Halteres dark; of normal length. Abdomen. Abdominal setae strong and dense; dorsally dark; ventrally dark. Hypopygium concolour with abdomen; Length/Width 0.55–0.75 longer than wide. Base of gonocoxites with normal, weak hairs, or with strong setae; gonocoxites broadly separated, or narrowly separated; inner margin of gonocoxites normally U-shaped; inner part of hypopygium densely setose; elongated setae on valves of hypopygium absent. Gonostylus elongate; 2.2–2.7 × longer than wide; Inner margin straight, or concave; apex equally rounded. Apical tooth present; 2.3–2.7 × longer than broad; normal, or weak. Awl-like setae normal, or short; below apex present. Megasetae on inner part of gonostylus absent. Tegmen 0.55–0.75 × longer than broad; rectangular with rounded edges; with dark and strengthended edges; Central process absent. Length of aedeagus/hypopygium 25–30 %; Aeadeagal apical structure absent. Measurements. Body size 2.8–3.2 mm. Wing length 3–3.5 mm.

Diagnosis

The species complex around Le. pilosa is very difficult to resolve. Tuomikoski (1960: 24)[3] noted in his discussion of Trichosia coarctata [= Leptosciarella trochanterata], that it is difficult to distinguish from Trichosia scutellata [= Leptosciarella pilosa]. He wondered, if there were two or three species. In fact there are at least eight species belonging to this group. Leptosciarella pilosa is distinguished by all other species of the pilosa-group except for Leptosciarella yerburyi by the dark coxal bristles, which has shorter palp segments and a bare postpronotum. The small subapical bulge of the gonostyles is present only in Leptosciarella subspinulosa, but is much more conspicious in the latter. The apex of the gonostylus is not as exactly rounded as in the other species, but slightly angulate, so Le. pilosa may also resemble Leptosciarella rejecta, from which it can be distinguished by the weaker bristles at the base of the gonocoxal valves

Etymology

lat. pilosus = hairy; referring to the long body hairs.

Ecology

Not known in detail, mainly found in forests.

Discussion

Leptosciarella pilosa is a good example, how unstable the species concepts of certain species of Leptosciarella have been in the past. Edwards (1925: 236, fig. 9)[4] identified this species with Sciara elegans Winnertz [= Leptosciarella scutellata (Staeger)], and gave a figure, which neither shows Leptosciarella pilosa nor Leptosciarella scutellata in the current sense, but Leptosciarella rejecta. Lengersdorf (1930: 28, fig. 28)[5] follows Edwards´ concept and proposes Sciara elongata Winnertz as an additional synonym. Frey (1948: 74, fig. 17)[6] followed Lengersdorf but rejected Edwards´ according interpretation. His figure also shows Le. rejecta. Tuomikoski (1960: 22)[3] and later authors did not question the concept by Frey, Lengersdorf and Edwards, who had seen the type material but did not designate a lectotype. In a later re-examination of the type series by Mohrig & Menzel (1997: 73)[2] no specimen belonging to the traditional species concept was found, so a specimen was designated as lectotype, which had formerly been interpreted as Sciara scutellata Staeger (Frey, 1942; 74,f ig. 19). Accordingly the species concept of Le. pilosa changed completely. But even with the designation of a lectotype the it remained unclear. The material listed by Mohrig & Menzel (1997: 72, 73) belongs to three different species, Leptosciarella pilosa, Leptosciarella subspinulosa Edwards and a third, undescribed species. Another synonym, Sciara elegans var. defecta Strobl, 1910, is in fact a distinct species, Leptosciarella defecta. Because of this complex situation many of cited the faunistic records of Leptosciarella pilosa in the literature must be verified again.

Distribution

Austria[7], Bulgaria[8], Czech Republic[9], Denmark[1], Finland[6][3], France[2], Germany[10][2][11][12][13][14][15], Great Britain[16], Ireland[17], Italy[2], Japan[18], Poland[2], Russia[2], Slovakia[19][20], Sweden[21][22], Turkmenistan, Ukraine[2].

Images

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Staeger, R.C. 1840: Systematisk Fortegnelse over de i Danmark hidtil fundne Diptera. 3die Stamme, Tipulariae Fungicolae. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, 1(3), 228–288. BHL
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Mohrig, W.; Menzel, F. 1997: Revision der paläarktischen Arten von Trichosia Winnertz sensu Tuomikoski, 1960 (Diptera, Sciaridae). – Teil II. Gattungen 'Leptosciarella' Tuomikoski, 1960 und 'Trichodapus' gen. nov. Studia dipterologica, 4(1), 41–98.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Tuomikoski, R. 1960: Zur Kenntnis der Sciariden (Dipt.) Finnlands. Annales Zoologici Societatis Zoologicae Botanicae Fennicae “Vanamo”, 21, 1–164.
  4. Edwards, F.W. 1925: XXII. British fungus-gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). With a revised generic classification of the family. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1925(3-4), 505–670.
  5. Lengersdorf, F. 1930: 7. Lycoriidae (Sciaridae). In: E. Lindner (Ed.), Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region (2(1)). E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, 1–71.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Frey, R. 1948: Entwurf einer neuen Klassifikation der Mückenfamilie Sciaridae (Lycoriidae). II. Die nordeuropäischen Arten. Notulae Entomologicae, 27(2-4), 33-112.
  7. Strobl, G. 1910: Die Dipteren von Steiermark. II. Nachtrag. Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, 46(1909), 45–293.
  8. Dimitrova, B.; Mohrig, W. 1993: Beitrag zur Trauermückenfauna Bulgariens (Diptera, Sciaridae). II. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 46, 89–96.
  9. Menzel, F.; Mohrig, W.; Barták, J. 2000: Sciaridae. In: J. Vanhara & M. Barták (Eds.), Diptera in an industrially affected region (North-Western Bohemia, Bilina and Duchcov Environs), I, Folia Facultatis Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Masarykianae Brunensis (104). pp. 73-81.
  10. Menzel, F. 2006: 6.1.3.7 Familie Trauermücken (Sciaridae). In: Nationalparkverwaltung Berchtesgaden (Ed.), Quellen im Nationalpark Berchtesgaden. Lebensgemeinschaften als Indikatoren des Klimawandels, Nationalpark Berchtesgaden, Forschungsbericht (51). Berchtesgaden. pp. 204–208.
  11. Hövemeyer, K. 1992: Die Dipterengemeinschaft eines Kalkbuchenwaldes: eine siebenjährige Untersuchung. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 119(2), 225–260.
  12. Rudzinski, H.-G. 2003: Die Trauermücken (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae) des Naturschutzgebietes Bommecketal in Plettenberg (Sauerland). Der Sauerländische Naturbeobachter, 28, 190–197.
  13. Heller, K. 1999: Trauermücken (Diptera: Sciaridae) von Gönnersdorf (Kr. Daun). Beiträge zur Insektenfauna der Eifeldörfer 20. Dendrocopos, 26, 249–262.
  14. Weber, D. 1995: Die Höhlenfauna und -flora des Höhlenkatastergebietes Rheinland-Pfalz/Saarland. 3. Teil. Abhand­lungen zur Karst- und Höhlenkunde, 29, 1–322.
  15. Eckert, R.; Mohrig, W.; Kallweit, U. 1999: Ein Beitrag zur Mückenfauna (Trauer- und Pilzmücken) der Höhlen deutscher Mittelgebirge (Harz, Kyffhäuser, Thüringer Wald, Zittauer Gebirge). Mitteilungen des Verbandes der deutschen Höhlen- und Karstforscher e. V. München, 45(2), 66-70.
  16. Menzel, F.; Smith, J.E.; Chandler, P. 2006: The sciarid fauna of the British Isles (Diptera: Sciaridae), including descriptions of six new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 146, 1-147. PDF
  17. Chandler, P.; O’Connor, J.P.; Nash, R.; Withers, P. 2002: Diptera new to Ireland in seventeen families. Dipterists Digest (Second Series), 9(2), 121–136.
  18. Mohrig, W.; Menzel, F.; Kozánek, M. 1992: Neue Trauermücken (Diptera, Sciaridae) aus Nord-Korea und Japan. Dipterological Research, 3, 17–32.
  19. Rudzinski, H.-G. 2009: Die Trauermücken des Poľana Biosphären-Reservats (Diptera: Sciaridae). Casopis Slezskeho zemskeho muzea, serie A, 58, 39-46.
  20. Rudzinski, H.-G.; Ševčík, J. 2012: Fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea) of the Gemer region (Central Slovakia): Part 3 – Sciaridae. Časopis Slezského zemského muzea, 61, 143–157.
  21. Rudzinski, H.-G. 1992: Neue Mitteilungen zum Vorkommen von Trauermücken in Schweden (Diptera: Nematocera: Sciaridae). Entomologische Zeitschrift, 102, 66–72.
  22. Heller, K.; Vilkamaa, P.; Hippa, H. 2009: An annotated check list of Swedish black fungus gnats (Diptera, Sciaridae). Sahlbergia, 15(1), 23-51.