Lepidosaphes pallidula (Miller, Douglass R., Williams, Douglas J. & Davidson, John A. 2006)
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- Lepidosaphes pallidula Miller, Douglass R., 2006, Zootaxa 1362: 31-35.
Lepidosaphes pallidus; Green, 1919: 446.
Type material. Although Green marked 1 specimen as “ type,” there is no indication of a primary type in the original description, so the type series must be considered syntypes. A lectotype is here designated to clarify the status of the species. It is selected from material deposited in BMNH labeled as follows: right label in Green’s handwriting “ Mytilaspis gloverii Packard / var pallida Green / Punduloya, Ceylon ”; left label, circular, printed “CO- TYPE.” A label has been placed to the right of the circular label giving the location of the lectotype and stating “ LECTOTYPE / Paralectotypes / desig. by Miller/ Williams &/ Davidson.” There are 3 adult females on the slide, the right specimen is here selected as the lectotype (BMNH). There are 2 other slides in BMNH, 1 contains 1 adult female and is labeled “ TYPE ” and a second slide contains 4 adult females and has the same data as the lectotype. We had difficulty selecting a lectotype from BMNH syntypes because of their poor condition; none showed all diagnostic characteristics. The lectotype has the following primary diagnostic characters: a lateral sclerotized spine on the lateral margin of segment I, 2 inner notches on the median lobes, and a gland-spine formula of 2 - 2 - 2. However, the specimen is unusual in that it has only 3 perivulvar pores in each posterolateral cluster, 1 or 2 submarginal macroducts on segment V, and antennae with 2 obvious setae. We also have seen a slide labeled “ Lepidosaphes / pallidula / (Williams)/ Pundaluoya, Ceylon / E. E. Green/ # 6865 / Balsam” (USNM) that may be part of the type series. In addition, there are specimens that apparently were sent to Maskell by Green, probably in 1894. There are 9 slides containing slide-mounted specimens and dry-mounted scale covers. These specimens were prepared from dry material from the Maskell collection and were incorporated in the USNM collection as part of an agreement with New Zealand. For details see Morrison and Morrison (1922) and Miller et al. (1998). One additional slide contains 1 adult female and may be part of the same series of specimens sent by Green to Maskell in 1894; it probably was mounted by Maskell (NZAC). Field Characters Adult female cover oystershell shaped, straight, pale yellow or brown; shed skins marginal, yellow. Male cover shorter and narrower than female cover, same color and texture; shed skins marginal, yellow. Body of adult female white; eggs and crawlers white. On foliage.
Description. Adult female on microscope slide elongate oval, membranous except for pygidium, 0.73–1.37 (1.11) mm long, 0.36–0.49 (0.42) mm wide, head margin rounded anteriorly, without lateral tubercles and minute spinules; sides of prothorax and mesothorax diverging, sides of metathorax to apex of abdomen converging, lateral margins of prepygidial segments weakly lobed. Pygidium with 2 definite pairs of lobes, third and fourth pairs of lobes represented by series of small points. Paraphyses present on inner and outer margins of median lobes, each a little longer than lobes and almost touching anteriorly; smaller paraphyses normally present on inner lobule of second lobes, occasionally with 1 or 2 paraphyses on outer lobule. Median lobes each 10–16 (14) µm long, 15–17 (16) µm wide, separated by space 10–12 (10) µm wide (0.5 –1.0 (0.7) times width of median lobe), inner and outer basal margins straight, inner margin usually longer than outer margin, each inner margin with 1–5 (3) notches, outer margin with 1–3 (2) notches, apex rounded. Second lobes bilobed, inner lobule largest, with 0–1 (1) outer notches, 0–1 (1) inner notches, outer lobule with outer margin with 0–1 (1) notches, inner margin with 0–1 (0) notches; third lobes single, represented by swelling surrounding marginal macroduct and series of small teeth; fourth lobes represented by 2 macroduct swellings, 1 swelling often with a series of teeth, anterior swelling in front of seta marking lobe 5. Gland spines each with single microduct. Gland spines between median lobes with inner and outer notches, slightly longer or equal to median lobes; gland-spine formula 2 - 2 - 2, gland spines between median and second lobes projecting about same length as median lobes and gland spines between second and third lobes longest. Additional smaller gland spines present from segment II or III to segment V, each with 2 to 5 gland spines, metathorax with 4–7 (6) tubercle-like gland spines near each spiracle, segment I with 12–16 (14). Macroducts of 2 sizes, larger size on margin only, 1 duct in first space, 2 in second, and 3 on segments IV and V. Smaller ducts in submedial areas of segments V and VI, with 1–3 (2) submarginal on segment V. Other dorsal ducts on marginal areas of mesothorax to segment IV; submedial ducts on segments II–IV. Ventral ducts on meso- and metathorax and segment I. With 1 small dorsal duct anterior of second lobe. Pygidial microducts on venter in submarginal areas of segments V to VI or VII; prepygidial ducts in submedial areas of segments I–IV, submarginal on segments III and sometimes IV; dorsal pygidial and prepygidial microducts absent. Perivulvar pores in 5 indistinct groups, 3–6 (4) present in medial group, 4–12 (8) in anterolateral group, 4–6 (4) in posterolateral group, total of 27–32 (29). Perispiracular pores with 3 loculi, anterior spiracular pores each with 1–4 (2) pores. Anal opening 10–15 (12) µm in diameter, situated at base of pygidium, located 125–170 (140) µm from base of median lobes. Lateral spurs usually present on segment I or between segments I and II, usually with sclerotized point, without associated macroduct, sometimes also present between segments II and III, with associated macroduct. Eyes difficult to see, usually represented by small membranous dome with central sclerotized area near body margin at level of antenna. Antennae each with 1 or 2 (1) large setae, single seta occasionally with bifurcate base. With 1–4 (2) microducts near each antenna. Notes.Lepidosaphes pallidula is very similar to L. pallida by having the gland-spine formula of 2 - 2 - 2, no dermal sclerotization on mature females, no cicatrices, and macroducts present from mesothorax to abdomen apex. Lepidosaphes pallidula can be separated by having a spur on the lateral margin of abdominal segment 1 or between segments I and II, and sometimes with a second spur between segment II and III (L. pallida without), usually 2 or more notches on inner margin of median lobes (L. pallida normally with 1), inner margin of median lobes sometimes longer than outer margin (normally equal in L. pallida), median lobes 15–18 (16) µm wide (9–13 (11) μm in L. pallida), 1–3 (2) submarginal macroducts on segment V (1–2 (1) in L. pallida), and by not occurring on coniferous hosts (L. pallida is almost exclusively on conifers). Lepidosaphes pallidula also is similar to L. newsteadi by having no dermal sclerotization on mature females, no cicatrices, usually more than 1 submarginal macroduct on each side of abdominal segment V. Lepidosaphes pallidula differs by having a spur on the lateral margin of abdominal segment I or between segments I and II, and sometimes with a second spur between segment II and III (L. newsteadi without), gland spine formula 2 - 2 - 2 (2 - 2 -0 or 2 - 2 - 1 in L. newsteadi), usually 2 or more notches on inner margin of median lobes (L. newsteadi normally with 1), space between median lobes narrower than width of median lobe (usually wider in L. newsteadi), posterolateral cluster of perivulvar pores with 3–6 (4) pores (7–12 (9) pores in L. newsteadi), and macroducts absent from prothorax (present on prothorax on L. newsteadi).
Hosts and Distribution.Miller and Gimpel (2006) recorded this species from 4 host genera in 4 families and from the following countries: Australia, Egypt, India, Mauritius, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. We have examined specimens from: Japan on Rhizophora;Malaysia on Hibiscus, Murraya, and Passiflora; Philippines on Mangifera, Psidium, and Scolopia; Sri Lanka on undetermined host.
- Miller, Douglass R.; Williams, Douglas J.; Davidson, John A.; 2006: Key to conifer-infesting species of Lepidosaphes Shimer worldwide (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae), with descriptions of two new species and a redescription of L. pallidula (Williams), Zootaxa 1362: 31-35. doi