Gallirallus pisonii

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Kirchman, Jeremy J., Steadman, David W. (2006) Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania. Zootaxa 1316 : 10 – 17, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-04, version 79390, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Gallirallus_pisonii&oldid=79390 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Kirchman2006Zootaxa1316,
author = {Kirchman, Jeremy J. AND Steadman, David W.},
journal = {Zootaxa},
title = {Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania},
year = {2006},
volume = {1316},
issue = {},
pages = {10 -- 17},
doi = {TODO},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-04, version 79390, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Gallirallus_pisonii&oldid=79390 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania
A1 - Kirchman, Jeremy J.
A1 - Steadman, David W.
Y1 - 2006
JF - Zootaxa
JA -
VL - 1316
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/TODO
SP - 10
EP - 17
PB -
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-04, version 79390, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Gallirallus_pisonii&oldid=79390 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

M3 - doi:TODO

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Kirchman2006Zootaxa1316">{{Citation
| author = Kirchman, Jeremy J., Steadman, David W.
| title = Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania
| journal = Zootaxa
| year = 2006
| volume = 1316
| issue =
| pages = 10 -- 17
| pmid =
| publisher =
| doi = TODO
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-04-02

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-04, version 79390, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Gallirallus_pisonii&oldid=79390 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.</ref>


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Gruiformes
Familia: Rallidae
Genus: Gallirallus

Name

Gallirallus pisonii Kirchman, Jeremy J., 2006Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Gallirallus pisonii Kirchman, Jeremy J., 2006, Zootaxa 1316: 10-17.

Materials Examined

Holotype. Complete coracoid UF 62934 (Figure 2 A) from the Pisonia Rockshelter archaeological site, Aguiguan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Paratypes. Rostrum anterior to nares UF 62918. Incomplete mandibles UF 62912–62914, 62926, 62946, 62947. Complete quadrates UF 62888, 62889, 62941. Complete and partial vertebrae UF 62880, 62890, 62919 (lot of 10), 62933, 62943, 62955. Incomplete sterni UF 62892 / 62893 (Figure 3 A, two pieces glued together), 62922. Humeral and sternal ends of coracoids UF 62881, 62884, 62910, 62911, 62931, 62939, 62940. Anterior scapulae UF 62878, 62915, 62916. Incomplete humeri UF 62887, 62902, 62903. Distal ulna UF 62925. Distal radius UF 62953. Incomplete carpometacarpi UF 62882, 62883, 62917 (Figure 2 A), 62923, 62924. Complete phalanx 1 of digitalis majoris UF 62938. Incomplete synsacrum UF 62948. Femoral shaft UF 62875. Proximal and distal tibiotarsi UF 62876, 62894–62901, 62927, 62937, 62944. Proximal fibulae UF 62932, 62942, 62954. Proximal and distal tarsometatarsi UF 62877, 62879, 62904–62909, 62928, 62929, 62949–62952. Pedal phalanges UF 62870–62873, 62874 (lot of nine), 62855, 62886 (lot of six), 62891 (lot of 48), 62920, 62921 (lot of 13), 62930 (lot of nine), 62935, 62936 (lot of 22), 62945 (lot of 24), 62956.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis. A small to medium­sized rail (smaller than Gallirallus philippensis; Table 3) with the following unique combination of characters (summarized in Table 4). Mandible: fenestra mandibulae caudalis large. Sternum: angle of crista lateralis, relative to dorsal margin in lateral aspect, ca. 50 °; carina sterni higher than in G. owstoni but lower than in G. philippensis. Coracoid: facies articularis sternalis narrow, shallow; impressio musculo sternocoracoracoidei less concave; corpus coracoidei, in dorsal aspect, wide relative to processus procoracoideus; facies articularis clavicularis protruding little from corpus coracoidei. Scapula: in proximal aspect, area between facies articularis humeralis and facies articularis clavicularis shallow. Humerus: caput humeri shallow in proximal aspect; incisura capitis shallow. Carpometacarpus: short and slender relative to leg elements.

Etymology

Etymology. Named after the type locality, Pisonia Rockshelter, which in turn was named after an immense tree of Pisonia grandis that grew nearby and provided badly needed shade while Connie Bodner, Scott Derrickson, John Groves, and David Lee worked with Steadman to excavate the site in 1994. The name pisonii is a genitive adjective.


mean, range, and sample size. M = male, F = female, U = unknown sex, ­­­ = cannot be evaluated. G. philippensis is volant; all others are flightless.

Description

G. owstoni G. o w s t o n i † G. temptatusG. pisonii M F U U Guam, Marianas Guam, Marianas Rota, Marianas Aguiguan, Marianas Coracoid 23.6 22.8 22.3 24.4 Total length 22.9–24.7 21.6–24.3 1 1 7 11 Sternal facet width 6.2 5.9 5.2 6.0 6.1–6.3 5.2–6.2 1 1 7 11 Minimum shaft width 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.7 2.5–2.8 2.3–3.0 1 1 7 11 Humerus 47.5 44.7 ­­­ ­­­ Total length 45.3–51.1 42.9–46.8 7 11 Distal width 6.5 6.1 ­­­ ­­­ 6.3–6.7 5.9–6.3 7 11 Minimum shaft width 2.8 2.7 ­­­ ­­­ 2.6–3.1 2.6–3.0 7 11 Ulna 39.1 36.6 ­­­ ­­­ Total length 36.8–41.5 34.8–38.7 7 11 Minimum shaft width 3.0 2.7 ­­­ ­­­ 2.8–3.2 2.6–3.0 7 11 Carpometacarpus 25.0 23.6 ­­­ ­­­ Total length 23.0–26.7 22.1–25.1 7 11 Femur 56.0 52.4 ­­­ ­­­ Total length 54.0–59.2 49.2–54.6 7 11 Distal width 9.5 8.7 ­­­ ­­­ 8.9–9.9 8.4–9.0 7 11 Minimum shaft width 3.8 3.6 ­­­ ­­­ 3.3–4.0 3.4–3.9 7 11 Tarsometatarsus 51.9 48.5 47.4 ­­­ Total length 48.7–54.9 46.2–50.6 1 7 11 Proximal width 7.6 7.1 6.6 5.6 7.0–8.2 6.7–7.3 6.4–6.8 5.6–5.7 7 11 2 2 Distal width 8.0 7.4 7.4 6.1 7.4–8.5 7.2–7.6 1 1 7 11 Minimum shaft width 3.8 3.4 3.4 3.0 3.5–4.0 3.2–3.8 3.3–3.5 3.0–3.1 7 11 2 2

G. pendiculentus G. philippensis G. philippensis U M F Tinian, Marianas Oceania* Oceania* Coracoid 21.7 26.8 23.2 Total length 20.2–23.7 26.2–27.5 21.8–24.5 7 6 6 Sternal facet width 5.6 6.6 5.5 5.3–5.9 6.1–7.3 5.1–5.9 5 6 6 Minimum shaft width 2.4 3.0 2.8 2.2–2.7 2.7–3.2 2.5–3.0 9 6 6 Humerus 42.0 51.3 45.6 Total length 41.2–42.7 49.2–53.0 41.5–49.3 2 6 6 Distal width 6.2 7.1 6.1 5.7–7.1 6.9–7.5 5.9–6.3 17 6 6 Minimum shaft width 2.8 3.3 2.9 2.6–3.1 3.2–3.4 2.7–3.3 13 5 6 Ulna 36.0 43.9 39.2 Total length 34.6–38.0 41.4–44.8 35.2–43.6 3 6 6 Minimum shaft width 2.4 3.0 2.7 2.2–2.5 2.8–3.1 2.6–2.8 9 6 6 Carpometacarpus 23.3 29.0 26.3 Total length 1 27.0­30.3 24.4­29.4 4 6 Femur 50.8 53.8 47.3 Total length 47.5­53.2 51.3­54.9 45.0­49.7 5 6 6 Distal width 8.1 8.7 7.4 7.5–9.1 8.4–9.1 7.0–7.9 9 6 6 Minimum shaft width 3.4 4.0 3.3 3.1–3.5 3.7–4.2 3.1–3.5 7 6 6 Tarsometatarsus 41.6 48.0 42.5 Total length 38.4–46.5 45.3–49.0 40.8–45.2 7 6 6 Proximal width 6.2 7.0 6.1 5.6–7.3 6.7–7.2 5.8–6.6 17 6 6 Distal width 6.5 7.1 6.3 6.1–6.8 6.7–7.5 6.0–6.9 14 6 6 Minimum shaft width 3.1 3.5 3.0 2.7–3.7 3.1–3.6 2.8–3.3 17 6 6

G. woodfordi G. woodfordiG. wakensis† G. w ak ensi s† G. ripleyi Coracoid Total length M Isabel, Solomons 33.0 31.8–33.7 3F Isabel, Solomons 30.9 30.5–31.4 3M Wake Is. 17.3 1F Wake Is. 16.2 1U Mangaia, Cook Islands 15.9 1Sternal facet width9.7 9.4–10.2 3 9.2 9.0–9.3 3 5.3 1 5.0 1 5.4 1Minimum shaft width Humerus Total length3.9 3.6–4.4 3 59.4 57.5–61.0 3 3.5 3.1–3.8 3 57.2 55.8–58.9 3 1.9 1 33.4 1 1.9 1 30.7 1 2.1 1 31.5 1Distal width9.1 8.9–9.2 3 8.8 8.6–8.9 3 5.1 1 4.7 1 4.8 1Minimum shaft width Ulna Total length3.8 3.7–3.8 3 51.6 50.7–52.8 3 3.6 3.5–3.7 3 49.5 47.8–50.6 3 2.0 1 27.6 1 1.8 1 25.0 1 2.1 1 22.8 22.6–23.1 2Minimum shaft width Carpometacarpus Total length Femur Total length3.6 3.5–3.8 3 32.7 32.6–32.8 3 72.1 72.0–72.3 3 3.3 3.2–3.5 3 32.1 30.0–33.5 3 69.6 69.0–70.3 3 1.9 1 18.5 1 37.9 1 1.9 1 16.4 1 36.7 1 1.8 1.7–1.8 2 14.6 14.5–14.7 2 39.8 1Distal width13.3 13.2–13.4 3 12.7 12.5–12.9 3 6.9 1 6.1 1 6.7 1Minimum shaft width Tarsometatarsus Total length5.2 5.2–5.3 3 70.9 69.8–72.3 3 4.8 4.6–5.1 3 68.7 66.7–72.0 3 2.8 1 35.6 1 2.6 1 33.3 1 3.0 1 33.1 1Proximal width10.5 10.2–10.7 3 10.0 9.9–10.1 3 6.0 1 5.5 1 5.7 1Distal width10.8 10.7–11.0 3 10.5 10.5–10.6 3 6.2 1 5.9 1 6.4 6.3–6.5 3Minimum shaft width4.9 4.8–5.0 3 4.6 4.4–4.7 3 2.9 1 2.5 1 3.0 2.8–3.1 2

Skeletal element and character G. owstoni Guam† G. temptatus Rota† G. pisonii Aguiguan Mandible Size relative to overall body size small small small Fenestra mandibulae caudalis small­­­large Sternum Angle of crista lateralis relative to dorsal margin, in lateral aspect ca. 40°­­­ca. 50°Overall height of carina sternii low­­­intermediate Spina externa of rostrum sterni present­­­present Coracoid Length relative to hindlimb short short long Facies art. sternalis wide, deep narrow, shallow narrow, shallow Impressio musculo sternocoracoidei concave concave less concave Shape of corpus cora­ coidei, in dorsal aspect narrow just hu­ meral to imp. m. sterno­cora­ coidei, flaring to have an ex­ panded proc. procoracoideus as in G. owstoni as in G. philippensis Foramen nutrium supracoracoidei small large small Humero­ventral half of corpus coracoidei, in ventral aspect narrow, with more protru­ dence of facies art. clavicularis as in G. owstoni as in G. philippensis Shape of lateral margin of facies art. humeralis, in humeral aspect short, rounded short, rounded intermediate Scapula Depth of area between facies art. humeralis and facies art. clavicularis, in prox. aspect deep shallow shallow Humerus Size relative to leg elements short, slender­­­ ­­­Caput humeri, in prox. aspect deep­­­shallow Incisura capitis deep­­­shallow Distal margin of crista pectoralis more angular junction with corpus humeri­­­ ­­Proc. supracondylaris dorsalis in dorsal aspect large­­­ ­­Fossa m. brachialis shallow­­­ ­­­ Width of distal end relative to length and wide ­­­ ­­width of corpus humeri Skeletal element and character G. owstoni Guam† G. temptatus Rota† G. pisonii Aguiguan Ulna Size relative to leg elements small intermediate­­­ Depressio musculo brachialis shallow, with indistinct margin deep, with distinct margin­­Carpometacarpus Size relative to leg elements short, stout length unknown, intermediate width short, slender Length from proc. pisiformis to prox. end of spatium intermeta­ carpalis long short­­Tarsometatarsus Width of corpus tarso­metatarsi relative to its length stout slender or intermediate stout Trochlea metatarsi III in dorsal aspect wide wide slender TABLE 4 (continued). Skeletal element and character† G. pendiculentus Tinian G.cf. philippensis Saipan G. philippensis Mandible Size relative to overall body size large­­­small Fenestra mandibulae caudalis­­­ ­­­variable Sternum Angle of crista lateralis relative to ­­­ dorsal margin, in lateral aspect­­­ca. 60–70°Overall height of carina sternii intermediate­­­high Spina externa of rostrum sterni absent­­­present Coracoid Length relative to hindlimb short­­­long Facies art. sternalis narrow, shallow­­­wide, deep Impressio musculo concave sternocoracoidei­­­concave Shape of corpus cora­ as in G. o w st on i coidei, in dorsal aspect­­­not as narrow; proc. procoracoideus not as expanded Foramen nutrium supracoracoidei small­­­small Humero­ventral half of corpus as in G. o w st on i coracoidei, in ventral aspect­­­wide, with less protrudence of facies art. clavicularis Shape of lateral margin of facies short, rounded art. humeralis, in humeral aspect­­­long, more pointed Skeletal element and character† G. pendiculentus Tinian G.cf. philippensis Saipan G. philippensis Scapula Depth of area between facies art. humeralis and facies art. clavicularis, in prox. aspect intermediate­­­deep Humerus Size relative to leg elements short, slender long?, intermediate long Caput humeri, in prox. aspect intermediate­­­deep Incisura capitis intermediate­­­deep Distal margin of crista pectoralis slopes more gradually to corpus humeri­­­more angular junction with corpus humeri Proc. supracondylaris dorsalis in dorsal aspect large intermediate small Fossa m. brachialis deep shallow deep Width of distal end relative to wide length and width of corpus humeri narrow narrow Ulna Size relative to leg elements intermediate large large Depressio musculo brachialis deep, with distinct shallow, with shallow, with indistinct margin indistinct margin margin Carpometacarpus

Discussion

Remarks. We suspect that † G. pisonii probably was flightless, although skeletal measurements do not strongly support this statement. For example, the sternum UF 62892 / 62893 has a carinal depth of 10.8 mm and a sternal width at the sulcus articularis coracoidei of 10.7 mm, values that are intermediate between those in modern specimens of the volant G. philippensis and the flightless G. owstoni. The shaft of the holotypical coracoid is slender and the carpometacarpus is very small, indicating reduced flight capability. The leg bones of † G. pisonii cannot be reliably distinguished from those of G. philippensis.

Taxon Treatment

  • Kirchman, Jeremy J.; Steadman, David W.; 2006: Rails (Rallidae: Gallirallus) from prehistoric archaeological sites in Western Oceania, Zootaxa 1316: 10-17. doi
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This treatment was originally uploaded by Plazi, compare this treatment on Plazi. Unless this treatment has been substantially changed on Species-ID, Plazi requests to maintain a link back to the original repository.

No known copyright restrictions apply on this formal expression of scientific knowledge. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for details.