Dorylus

From Species-ID
Jump to: navigation, search
Notice: This page is derived from the original publication listed below, whose author(s) should always be credited. Further contributors may edit and improve the content of this page and, consequently, need to be credited as well (see page history). Any assessment of factual correctness requires a careful review of the original article as well as of subsequent contributions.

If you are uncertain whether your planned contribution is correct or not, we suggest that you use the associated discussion page instead of editing the page directly.

This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Borowiec M (2016) Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). ZooKeys (608) : 1–280, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-08-04, version 99697, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Dorylus&oldid=99697 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Borowiec2016ZooKeys,
author = {Borowiec, Marek L.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)},
year = {2016},
volume = {},
issue = {608},
pages = {1--280},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.608.9427},
url = {http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=9427},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-08-04, version 99697, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Dorylus&oldid=99697 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
A1 - Borowiec M
Y1 - 2016
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL -
IS - 608
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.608.9427
SP - 1
EP - 280
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-08-04, version 99697, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Dorylus&oldid=99697 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.608.9427

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Borowiec2016ZooKeys">{{Citation
| author = Borowiec M
| title = Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2016
| volume =
| issue = 608
| pages = 1--280
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.608.9427
| url = http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=9427
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-10-21

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-08-04, version 99697, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Dorylus&oldid=99697 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Hymenoptera
Familia: Formicidae

Name

Dorylus Fabricius, 1793Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • [[= Alaopone|= Alaopone]] Emery, 1881, syn. n.
  • [[= Anomma|= Anomma]] Shuckard, 1840c, syn. n.
  • [[= Cosmaecetes|= Cosmaecetes]] Spinola, 1851
  • [[= Dichthadia|= Dichthadia]] Gerstäcker, 1863, syn. n.
  • [[= Rhogmus|= Rhogmus]] Shuckard, 1840c, syn. n.
  • [[= Shuckardia|= Shuckardia]] Emery, 1895b
  • [[= Sphecomyrmex|= Sphecomyrmex]] Schulz, 1906
  • [[= Sphegomyrmex|= Sphegomyrmex]] Imhoff, 1852
  • [[= Typhlopone|= Typhlopone]] Westwood, 1839, syn. n.

Type-species

Vespa helvola, by monotypy.
The Afrotropical ‘driver ants’ of this genus epitomize the army ant lifestyle, but they represent only a fraction of the diversity of Dorylus. Most species are much less commonly observed, and forage underground or in leaf litter.

Diagnosis

Worker. The workers of Dorylus are readily recognized by a combination of well-developed promesonotal Pronotomesopleural suture, propodeal spiracle positioned high on the propodeum and lack of propodeal lobes, single waist segment, pygidium large and with a flattened surface and armed with two cuticular projections, and pretarsal claws simple. Other army ants of the Old World, Aenictus and Aenictogiton, are not easily confused with Dorylus as the former always has a well-differentiated second waist segment (postpetiole) and in Aenictogiton the gaster has more developed constrictions between gastral pre- and post-sclerites, resulting in apparent constriction between abdominal segments IV, V, and VI. Yunodorylus is superficially similar but is easily distinguished from all army ants by the propodeal spiracle situated low and presence of propodeal lobes. Among the New World army ants only Cheliomyrmex has one-segmented waist but Cheliomyrmex does not have a promesonotal Pronotomesopleural suture, its pygidium is reduced and never armed with cuticular projections, and its pretarsal claws are armed with a tooth.
Male. In general appearance Dorylus males are similar to other army ant genera but possess flattened femora that are much broader and more compressed than the tibiae and tarsi. This trait alone is sufficient to separate them from all other male dorylines, but a combination of single-segmented waist, M·f1 vein of fore wing arising from M+Cu at about 45° and situated near to cu-a, Rs·f2–3 lost, pterostigma narrow and inconspicuous can also be used to recognize Dorylus. The Old World army ant genera Aenictus and Aenictogiton have similar fore wing venation but both have a well-developed and broad pterostigma and the latter has a ‘free-hanging’ Rs·f3 vein. In the New World army ants M·f1 arises at a lower angle and is conspicuously proximal to cu-a, and Rs·f2–3 are present, forming two submarginal cells. Dorylus males also possess unique genital capsule morphology, where a tiny diamond-shaped structure is formed from a fragment of the basimeres and visible dorsally over the aedeagus (‘patella’ of Birket-Smith 1981[1]; Brendon Boudinot pers. comm.). The telomeres in lateral view do not conceal inner valves of the genital capsule as in most dorylines but instead form a characteristic shape of a spiral arm folding first proximally and then projecting distally over the rest of genital capsule thus concealing it from above.

Description

Worker. Head: Antennae with 8, 9, 11, or 12 segments. Apical antennal segment not enlarged, not broader and longer than two preceding segments combined. Clypeus without cuticular apron. Lateroclypeal teeth absent. Parafrontal ridges absent. Torulo-posttorular complex vertical. Antennal scrobes absent. Labrum without median notch or concavity. Labrum with median notch or concavity. Proximal face of stipes projecting beyond inner margin of sclerite, concealing prementum when mouthparts fully closed. Maxillary palps 2- or 1-segmented. Labial palps 2-segmented. Mandibles elongately triangular to falcate, with teeth on elongated masticatory margin. Eyes absent. Ocelli absent. Head capsule with differentiated vertical posterior surface above occipital foramen. Ventrolateral margins of head without lamella or ridge extending towards mandibles and beyond carina surrounding occipital foramen. Posterior head corners dorsolaterally immarginate. Carina surrounding occipital foramen entirely absent, including ventrally. Mesosoma: Pronotal flange not separated from collar by distinct ridge. Promesonotal connection with Pronotomesopleural suture conspicuous and complete, but immobile. Pronotomesopleural suture complete, continuous with promesonotal Pronotomesopleural suture. Mesometapleural groove deeply impressed, conspicuous. Transverse groove dividing mesopleuron absent. Pleural endophragmal pit concavity present. Mesosoma dorsolaterally immarginate. Metanotal depression or groove on mesosoma absent. Propodeal spiracle situated high on sclerite. Propodeal declivity without distinct dorsal edge or margin and rectangular in posterior view. Metapleural gland with bulla visible through cuticle in smaller workers, mostly obscured in large workers. Propodeal lobes absent. Metasoma: Petiole anterodorsally immarginate, dorsolaterally immarginate, and laterally above spiracle immarginate. Helcium in relation to tergosternal Pronotomesopleural suture placed at posttergite and axial. Prora forming a simple U-shaped margin. Spiracle openings of abdominal segments IV–VI circular. Abdominal segment III anterodorsally immarginate and dorsolaterally immarginate. Abdominal segment III more than half size of succeeding segment IV, which is weakly constricted at presegmental portion (uninodal waist). Girdling constriction of segment IV present, i.e. pre- and postsclerites distinct. Cinctus of abdominal segment IV gutter-like and sculptured but not cross-ribbed. Abdominal segment IV not conspicuously largest segment. Abdominal tergite IV not folding over sternite, and anterior portions of sternite and tergite equally well visible in lateral view. Girdling constriction between pre- and posttergites of abdominal segments V and VI present. Girdling constriction between pre- and poststernites of abdominal segments V and VI present. Pygidium large, with impressed medial field, and armed with cuticular spines. Hypopygium unarmed. Legs: Mid tibia with single pectinate spur. Hind tibia with single pectinate spur. Hind basitarsus not widening distally, circular in cross-section. Posterior flange of hind coxa not produced as raised lamella. Metatibial gland present as oval patch of whitish cuticle. Metabasitarsal gland absent. Hind pretarsal claws simple. Polymorphism: Highly polymorphic.
Male. Head: Antennae with 13 segments. Clypeus without cuticular apron. Parafrontal ridges absent. Torulo-posttorular complex vertical, carinae separated by broad flat or convex area between exposed antennal sockets. Maxillary palps 2- or 1-segmented. Labial palps 1-segmented. Mandibles falcate. Ventrolateral margins of head without lamella or ridge extending towards mandibles and beyond carina surrounding occipital foramen. Carina surrounding occipital foramen ventrally absent. Mesosoma: Pronotal flange not separated from collar by distinct ridge. Notauli absent. Transverse groove dividing mesopleuron absent. Propodeal declivity reduced, without distinct dorsal edge or margin. Metapleural gland opening absent. Propodeal lobes absent. Metasoma: Petiole anterodorsally immarginate, dorsolaterally immarginate, and laterally above spiracle immarginate. Helcium in relation to tergosternal Pronotomesopleural suture placed at posttergite and axial. Prora simple, not delimited by carina. Spiracle openings of abdominal segments IV–VI slit-shaped. Abdominal segment III more than half size of succeeding segment IV; latter weakly constricted at presegmental portion (uninodal waist). Girdling constriction of segment IV absent, i.e. pre- and postsclerites indistinct. Cinctus of abdominal segment IV absent, not impressed. Girdling constriction between pre- and postsclerites of abdominal segments V and VI absent. Abdominal segment IV not conspicuously largest segment. Abdominal sternite VII simple. Abdominal sternite IX distally armed with two spines, with lateral apodemes short, directed sideways. Genitalia: Cupula short relative to rest of genital capsule and shorter ventrally than dorsally. Basimere fused basally, with a fragment reduced to tiny, plate-like sclerite. Telomere folding backwards and then over rest of genital capsule, concealing it dorsally. Volsella gradually tapering toward apex. Penisvalva laterally compressed, rounded at apex. Legs: Mid tibia with single pectinate spur. Hind tibia with single pectinate spur. Posterior flange of hind coxa not produced as raised lamella. Metatibial gland absent. Metabasitarsal glands absent. Hind pretarsal claws simple. Wings: Tegula present, broad, demiovate in shape. Vein C in fore wing present. Pterostigma narrow. Abscissa R·f3 absent. Abscissae Rs·f2–3 absent. Cross-vein 2r-rs present, connected to Rs·f2–3&Rs·f4. Abscissae Rs·f4–5 differentiated into Rs·f4 and Rs·f5 by 2rs-m. Abscissa M·f2 in fore wing contiguous with Rs+M. Abscissa M·f4 in fore wing present, reaching wing margin. Cross-vein 1m-cu in fore wing present. Cross-vein cu-a in fore wing present, arising from Cu and distal to, at or near M·f1. Vein Cu in fore wing present, with only Cu1 branch prominent. Vein Cu in fore wing present, with both branches Cu1 and Cu2. Vein A in fore wing with abscissae A·f1 and A·f2 present. Vein C in hind wing unknown. Vein C in hind wing present. Vein R in hind wing present, extending past Sc+R but not reaching distal wing margin. Vein Sc+R in hind wing present. Abscissa Rs·f1 in hind wing present, shorter than 1rs-m. Abscissa Rs·f2 in hind wing present, not reaching wing margin. Cross-vein 1rs-m in hind wing present, shorter than M·f1. Vein M+Cu in hind wing present. Abscissa M·f1 in hind wing present. Abscissa M·f2 in hind wing present. Cross-vein cu-a in hind wing present. Vein Cu in hind wing present. Vein A in hind wing with abscissae A·f1 and A·f2 present.
Gyne. Dichthadiiform, blind, with median ocellus (see e.g. Barr et al. 1985[2]).
Larva. Larvae of Dorylus have been described in Wheeler (1943)[3] and Wheeler and Wheeler (1984)[4]. Cocoons are absent.

Distribution

Dorylus ranges from Sub-Saharan Africa throughout North Africa and Asia Minor to Borneo in Southeast Asia. The Afrotropics harbor the highest number of species and are the home of the surface- and leaf litter-foraging species.

Taxonomy and phylogeny

The long and confusing taxonomic history of the genus begins with a male ant from South Africa, described as Vespa helvola by Linnaeus in 1764. Later Fabricius (1793)[5] created the genus Dorylus for that species. Similarly to Aenictus, for a time the males and females were known under different generic names, with Dorylus being applied to males and Anomma and Typhlopone to the workers. 85 years after the original description of Vespa helvola, T. S. Savage observed males and workers together in the field and recognized that they belonged to one species (Savage 1849[6]). A very readable overview of the early taxonomic history of Dorylus can be found in Gotwald (1995[7]: 13). The modern subgeneric division of Dorylus was stabilized by Emery (1895b[8], 1910[9]). This classification has come under scrutiny using molecular data in the recent decades, and two of the most speciose subgenera of Dorylus, Anomma and Dorylus s. str. were found to be not monophyletic (Kronauer et al. 2007[10]). Because of these phylogenetic considerations, also backed up by morphological study (Caspar Schöning pers. comm.), I propose to abandon the traditional subgeneric classification. Although the surface-foraging (as opposed to leaf litter) species of Anomma species form a clade and it is even possible to differentiate it based on apomorphic morphological characters from other Dorylus (Schöning et al. in preparation), recognizing Anomma would likely leave the large Dorylus s. str. paraphyletic. Other Dorylus subgenera are likely monophyletic (Kronauer et al. 2007[10]). Subgeneric classification is not currently adopted for any other doryline genus, and I propose the following informal species-groups to be recognized instead of the subgenera (for species known from the worker caste):
Dorylus orientalis-group (equivalent of Alaopone), comprising species acutus, aethiopicus, atriceps, attenuatus, brevis, buyssoni, conradti, diadema, distinctus, ductor, katanensis, montanus, orientalis, vishnui.
Dorylus nigricans-group (equivalent of Anomma excluding emeryi and kohli (Schöning et al. 2008[11])), comprising species atratus, erraticus, funereus, mayri, niarembensis, nigricans, rufescens, stanleyi, wilverthi.
Dorylus laevigatus-group (equivalent of Dichthadia), comprising species laevigatus.
Dorylus politus-group (species excluded from Dorylus s. str. based on phylogeny in Kronauer et al. 2007[10]), comprising species politus, spininodis.
Dorylus helvolus-group (equivalent of Dorylus s. str. but excluding species of politus-group and including two species previously assigned to Anomma), comprising species affinis, agressor, alluaudi, bequaerti, bishyiganus, braunsi, brevipennis, congolensis, depilis, emeryi, faurei, furcatus, gaudens, ghanensis, gribodoi, helvolus, kohli, mandibularis, moestus, schoutedeni, stadelmani, staudingeri, striatidens, titan.
Dorylus fimbriatus-group (equivalent of Rhogmus), comprising species fimbriatus, fuscipennis, leo, ocellatus, savagei, termitarius.
Dorylus fulvus-group (equivalent of Typhlopone), comprising species fulvus, labiatus.
Species unassigned to species-groups: atratus, westwoodii.
Dorylus is the sister taxon to Aenictogiton (Brady et al. 2006[12], 2014[13], Borowiec, in prep.). As explained above, the internal phylogeny of the genus (Kronauer et al. 2007[10]) shows that the subgenera Anomma and Dorylus as they were traditionally defined are not monophyletic. The Asian species Dorylus laevigatus represents the earliest-branching lineage of the genus. The time-calibrated phylogeny of Kronauer et al. (2007)[10] estimated crown group age of Dorylus to be between 30 and 64 million years, but more recent studies suggest much younger ages at about 22 million years (Brady et al. 2014[13]) or even younger than 20 million years (Borowiec, in prep.).

Biology

Because some species of this lineage are so conspicuous and are the most important arthropod predators of the Afrotropics, this group has attracted considerable attention.
The best studied species include the Afrotropical species that forage above ground (Raignier and Boven 1955[14], Raignier 1972[15], Gotwald 1995[7]), but one subterranean species, Dorylus laevigatus has been the subject of some work (Berghoff et al. 2002a[16], b[17], 2003a[18], b[19], Weissflog et al. 2000[20]). Good overviews of Dorylus biology can be found in Raignier and Boven (1955)[14] and Gotwald (1995)[7]. The surface- and leaf litter-foraging species have been collectively referred to as ‘driver ants’ (Savage 1847[21]), and traditionally classified in the polyphyletic subgenus Anomma (see Taxonomy and phylogeny above). Here I follow this convention and use the terms ‘driver ants’ and ‘surface-‘ or ’epigaeically-foraging species’ interchangeably.
The life cycle of Dorylus colony is similar to that of Eciton and many other army ants but there are no pronounced nomadic and statary phases. The brood production is not synchronized (Gotwald 1995[7], Schöning et al. 2005b[22]), and the colonies move from old to new nesting sites at irregular intervals (Gotwald and Cunningham van Sommeren 1990, Schöning et al. 2005b[22]). A mature colony will produce about a dozen virgin queens and eventually undergo fission. About half of the worker force will depart with the old, fertilized queen, while the other half will remain with the virgin queens. Ultimately, all except one of the new queens are cannibalized (Raignier 1972[15]). The new colony does not produce sexual brood until the workers mothered by the old queen have died (Kronauer et al. 2004[23]).
Copulation in Dorylus has been observed only once (Kronauer and Boomsma 2007a[24]). Males collected at lights and two inseminated queens from established Dorylus molestus bivouacs were coupled under laboratory conditions. The male first uses his sickle-shaped mandibles to grasp the queen behind her petiole and performs bending movements, searching the tip of the queen’s abdomen. Once engaged, the pairs remained in copulation for five to ten hours. After this period, the male relaxes his grip on queen’s petiole but remains connected to the queen. Twenty hours after the copulations, the two pairs were killed and dissected, both males remaining attached to the queens. The males apparently succeeded in transferring sperm to the queens, and the dissections confirmed that the male accessory testes were empty after the copulations. Despite these observations, Kronauer and Boomsma (2007a)[24] find little evidence for army ant queens re-mating later in life and point out that the males were not attracted to old queens in most trials.
The reproductive potential of Dorylus queens is impressive, at least in the surface-foraging species studied thus far. The queen mates between 15–20 times (Kronauer et al. 2004[23], 2006[25]) early in her life and stores up to 880 million spermatozoa (Kronauer and Boomsma 2007a[24]). A Dorylus wilverthi queen can produce an estimated 3–4 million eggs per month, for a total over 250 million eggs during her lifetime (Raignier and Boven 1955[14], Kronauer and Boomsma 2007b[26]). This is even more than Eciton queens (see under Eciton; Schneirla 1971[27], Kronauer and Boomsma 2007b[26]).
These army ants always occupy subterranean nests, either constructed by excavating large amounts of soil and/or taking advantage of a preexisting cavity (Schöning et al. 2005b[22], Boven and Lévieux 1968[28]). Because of these underground habits, colony size estimates are rare. A single excavated colony of Dorylus laevigatus contained about 300,000 workers (Berghoff et al. 2002), and estimates of colony size for the surface foragers Dorylus nigricans and Dorylus wilverthi range from 1 million to over 20 million workers (Voessler 1905[29], Raignier and Boven 1955[14]). The dry mass of Dorylus nigricans colonies has been estimated to be 9–15 kg (Leroux 1982[30]). The underground nests of Dorylus are quite different from the above-ground bivouacs of Eciton (Gotwald 1995[7]). Raignier and Boven (1955)[14] categorized them as either occupying a single large chamber or dispersed among subterranean galleries and chambers. The first type is exemplified by Dorylus wilverthi and the second by Dorylus nigricans. Both nest types are often found among root systems of trees. These ants actively excavate soil and one estimate gives 20 kg of soil per day removed in the first week of a Dorylus nigricans colony settling into a new site (Leroux 1977[31]).
Dorylus emigrate irregularly and the colony often returns to the same nesting spot. Gotwald and Cunningham van Sommeren (1990)[32] followed a single colony of Dorylus molestus for 432 days and observed 38 emigrations during that time, spanning an area of about 5 hectares. One colony of Dorylus nigricans has been recorded to remain in one bivouac site for 125 consecutive days (Raignier and Boven 1955[14]). The adaptive significance of the cycles in brood production and colony activity remains unclear, but it seems to be correlated with highly variable food availability (Kronauer 2009[33]). While phasic species of Aenictus, Eciton, and other New World army ants rely heavily on brood of other social insects, Dorylus are more generalist (Gotwald 1995[7]).
Dorylus gynes may or may not be able to move on their own during nest emigration. All queen specimens known so far are missing tarsal segments (Raignier 1972[15], Berghoff et al. 2002), so that they are assisted to a new site by the entourage of workers (Berghoff et al. 2002). Raignier (1972)[15] observed missing tarsal segments in very young queens of Dorylus nigricans, prior to their first emigration. The causes and significance of this tarsal mutilation are not known.
A diversity of foraging habits and prey preferences has been documented for Dorylus (Gotwald 1995[7]). According to the most popular classification (Schöning et al. 2005a[34], Kronauer et al. 2007[10]), three major foraging strategies can be distinguished: subterranean, leaf litter, or surface foragers. The surface-swarming driver ants are generalist predators that will take any kind of prey, ranging from immatures of other insects to vertebrate carrion (Schöning and Moffett 2007[35]). Seasonal, habitat, and intraspecific differences can be seen in prey composition and intake in these ants, but the proportion of social insect prey is small (Schöning et al. 2008[11]). This is in contrast to Eciton burchellii, whose diet is general but it still relies heavily on this kind of prey (Rettenmeyer 1963[36]). The few subterranean species of Dorylys that have been studied have also been recorded to be generalist predators but additionally often feeding on termites (Darlington 1985[37], Berghoff et al. 2002). Dorylus orientalis is recognized as a vegetable crop pest, apparently being mainly or exclusively herbivorous (Roonwal 1975[38]). Variation in foraging can also be seen within the general foraging strategies. Schöning et al. (2008)[11] reported that two surface-swarming species, Dorylus wilverthi and Dorylus molestus, differ in their diets and raiding behavior. Dorylus molestus is often seen capturing earthworms and exhibits digging behavior, while earthworms are rarely a major component of the diet for Dorylus wilverthi, whose workers have not been observed digging. Two sympatric, subterranean species of Dorylus from Asia have also been compared and shown to differ in their foraging behavior and prey preference (Berghoff et al. 2003).
Kronauer et al. (2007)[10] used molecular phylogenetics and ancestral state reconstruction to address the evolution of the foraging niche in Dorylus. They categorized species as either subterranean, leaf litter, or surface foragers and inferred that subterranean foraging was the ancestral state for the genus. Both surface and leaf litter foraging strategies likely evolved once within Dorylus. The descendants of a leaf litter-dwelling ancestor gave rise to both surface foragers and species that reverted to subterranean foraging. An earlier study (Schöning et al. 2005a[34]) showed how allometry in the worker caste is correlated with the foraging niche, although the authors did not examine this in a phylogenetic framework (Felsenstein 1985[39]). These authors demonstrated that surface-adapted species possess appendages and mandibles that are longer relatively to their body size than in the leaf-litter and in the subterranean foragers. Kronauer et al. (2007)[10] further assessed allometry in the context of Dorylus phylogeny and concluded that the species that reverted to underground foraging re-evolved morphology similar to the ancestral, short-limbed condition.
Similarly to New World army ants, Dorylus colonies have numerous invertebrate and vertebrate associates, although these companion faunas are not as well described (Gotwald 1995[7]). Remarkably, the foragers of African driver ants are followed by several species of birds specializing on prey flushed by the ants, much like the swarms of Eciton burchellii in the New World (Peters et al. 2008[40]). Other vertebrates, such as chimpanzees are known to rely on Dorylus for food (Kingdon 1997[41], Schöning et al. 2007[42], Sanz et al. 2010[43]). Because the apes utilize sticks and plant stems to extract the ants, this is an important study system in the primate culture and tool use (Humle 2011[44]).
A variety of other research has been carried out on Dorylus, but most of these studies are isolated in nature. Kronauer et al. (2011)[45] documented significant amounts of hybridization between the driver ants Dorylus wilverthi and Dorylus molestus, and Barth et al. (2013)[46] undertook a population genetics study on Dorylus fulvus.

Species of Dorylus

Dorylus acutus Santschi, 1937a: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus aethiopicus Emery, 1895b: ‘Sudan, Abessinien, Tunis’
Dorylus affinis Shuckard, 1840c: Gambia
Dorylus affinis aegyptiacus Mayr, 1865: Egypt
Dorylus affinis denudatus Santschi, 1910c: Niger
Dorylus affinis exilis Santschi, 1914a: Tanzania
Dorylus affinis hirsutus Wheeler, W. M., 1922a: Egypt, Ethiopia
Dorylus affinis loewyi Forel, 1907b: Tanzania
Dorylus affinis parapsidalis Santschi, 1917: Malawi
Dorylus affinis pulliceps Santschi, 1917: Ivory Coast
Dorylus affinis sudanicus Santschi, 1917: Chad
Dorylus affinis ugandensis Santschi, 1914a: Uganda
Dorylus agressor Santschi, 1923b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus alluaudi Santschi, 1914a: Uganda
Dorylus alluaudi lobatus Santschi, 1919b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus atratus Smith, F., 1859: Nigeria
Dorylus atriceps Shuckard, 1840c: Gambia
Dorylus attenuatus Shuckard, 1840c: Gambia
Dorylus attenuatus acuminatus Emery, 1899b: South Africa
Dorylus attenuatus australis Santschi, 1919a: South Africa
Dorylus attenuatus bondroiti Santschi, 1912: South Africa
Dorylus attenuatus latinodis Forel, 1920: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus bequaerti Forel, 1913a: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus bishyiganus (Boven, 1972): Rwanda
Dorylus braunsi Emery, 1895b: Liberia
Dorylus braunsi anceps Forel, 1914: Zimbabwe
Dorylus brevipennis Emery, 1895b: Tanzania
Dorylus brevipennis marshalli Emery, 1901d: Zimbabwe
Dorylus brevipennis zimmermanni Santschi, 1910c: Republic of the Congo
Dorylus brevis Santschi, 1919b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus buyssoni Santschi, 1910c: Kenya
Dorylus buyssoni conjugens Santschi, 1910c: Kenya
Dorylus congolensis Santschi, 1910: Republic of the Congo
Dorylus conradti Emery, 1895b: Togo
Dorylus conradti berlandi Santschi, 1926a: Ivory Coast
Dorylus depilis Emery, 1895b: Cameroon
Dorylus depilis clarior Santschi, 1917: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus diadema Gerstäcker, 1859: Mozambique
Dorylus diadema arnoldi Forel, 1914: Zimbabwe
Dorylus diadema fusciceps Emery, 1899b: Malawi
Dorylus distinctus Santschi, 1910c: Guinea
Dorylus ductor Santschi, 1939: ‘Congo’
Dorylus emeryi Mayr, 1896: Cameroon
Dorylus emeryi opacus Forel, 1909b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus emeryi pulsi (Forel, 1904): ‘Afrique occidentale’
Dorylus erraticus (Smith, F., 1865): ‘New Guinea’ (labeling error: Wilson 1964[47]: 443)
Dorylus faurei Arnold, 1946: South Africa
Dorylus fimbriatus (Shuckard, 1840c): Gambia
Dorylus fimbriatus crampeli Santschi, 1919a: Central African Republic
Dorylus fimbriatus laevipodex Santschi, 1919a: Kenya
Dorylus fimbriatus poweri Forel, 1914: South Africa
Dorylus fulvus (Westwood, 1839): ‘North Africa’
Dorylus fulvus badius Gerstäcker, 1859: Mozambique
Dorylus fulvus crosi Santschi, 1926b: Algeria
Dorylus fulvus dentifrons Wasmann, 1904: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus fulvus eurous Emery, 1915b: Ethiopia
Dorylus fulvus glabratus Shuckard, 1840c: Gambia
Dorylus fulvus juvenculus Shuckard, 1840c: Morocco
Dorylus fulvus mordax Santschi, 1931: Ivory Coast
Dorylus fulvus obscurior Wheeler, W. M., 1925a: Guinea
Dorylus fulvus punicus Santschi, 1926b: Tunisia
Dorylus fulvus ruficeps Santschi, 1926b: Lebanon
Dorylus fulvus saharensis Santschi, 1926b: ‘Sahara’
Dorylus funereus Emery, 1895b: Ghana
Dorylus funereus acherontus Santschi, 1937b: Cameroon
Dorylus funereus pardus Santschi, 1937b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus funereus stygis Santschi, 1937b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus funereus zumpti Santschi, 1937b: Cameroon
Dorylus furcatus (Gerstäcker, 1872): South Africa
Dorylus fuscipennis (Emery, 1892): Ghana
Dorylus fuscipennis lugubris Santschi, 1919a: Ivory Coast
Dorylus fuscipennis marginiventris Santschi, 1919a: Ivory Coast
Dorylus gaudens Santschi, 1919b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus ghanensis Boven, 1975: Ghana
Dorylus gribodoi Emery, 1892: Togo
Dorylus helvolus (Linnaeus, 1764): South Africa
Dorylus helvolus pretoriae Arnold, 1946: South Africa
Dorylus katanensis Stitz, 1911: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli Wasmann, 1904: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli chapini Wheeler, W. M., 1922a: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli frenisyi Forel, 1916: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli indocilis Santschi, 1933: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli langi Wheeler, W. M., 1922a: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli militaris Santschi, 1923b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus kohli minor Santschi, 1911a: Angola
Dorylus kohli victoriae Santschi, 1921a: Uganda
Dorylus labiatus Shuckard, 1840c: India
Dorylus laevigatus (Smith, F., 1857): Malaysia (Sarawak)
Dorylus leo Santschi, 1919a: Ivory Coast
Dorylus mandibularis Mayr, 1896: Cameroon
Dorylus mandibularis pulchellus Santschi, 1920a: Ivory Coast
Dorylus mayri Santschi, 1912: Cameroon
Dorylus moestus Emery, 1895b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus moestus claripennis Santschi, 1919b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus moestus morio Santschi, 1919b: Republic of the Congo
Dorylus moestus schereri Forel, 1911d: Liberia
Dorylus montanus Santschi, 1910c: Tanzania
Dorylus niarembensis (Boven, 1972): Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus nigricans Illiger, 1802: Sierra Leone
Dorylus nigricans arcens (Westwood, 1847): Liberia
Dorylus nigricans burmeisteri (Shuckard, 1840c): Sierra Leone
Dorylus nigricans molestus (Gerstäcker, 1859): Mozambique
Dorylus nigricans pallidus Santschi, 1921a: Cameroon
Dorylus nigricans rubellus (Savage, 1849): Gabon
Dorylus nigricans sjoestedti Emery, 1899b: Cameroon
Dorylus nigricans sjostedtiwilverthi (Wasmann, 1917): Cameroon
Dorylus nigricans terrificus Santschi, 1923b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus ocellatus (Stitz, 1910): Cameroon
Dorylus orientalis Westwood, 1835: India
Dorylus orientalis obscuriceps Santschi, 1920b: India
Dorylus politus Emery, 1901d: Cameroon
Dorylus rufescens Santschi, 1915: Cameroon
Dorylus savagei Emery, 1895b: ‘Gabon und Congo’
Dorylus savagei mucronatus Emery, 1899b: Nigeria
Dorylus schoutedeni Santschi, 1923b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus spininodis Emery, 1901d: Cameroon
Dorylus spininodis longiceps Viehmeyer, 1914: Tanzania
Dorylus stadelmanni Emery, 1895b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus stanleyi Forel, 1909b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus staudingeri Emery, 1895b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus striatidens Santschi, 1910c: Senegal
Dorylus termitarius Wasmann, 1911: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus titan Santschi, 1923b: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus titan vinalli Santschi, 1933: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dorylus vishnui Wheeler, W. M., 1913: Myanmar
Dorylus westwoodii (Shuckard, 1840b): ‘South America’ (locality incorrect)
Dorylus wilverthi Emery, 1899b: Democratic Republic of the Congo

Taxon Treatment

  • Borowiec, M; 2016: Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) ZooKeys, (608): 1-280. doi


Other References

  1. Birket-Smith S (1981) The male genitalia of Hymenoptera - a review based on morphology in Dorylidae (Formicoidea). Entomologica Scandinavica. Supplementum 15: 377–397.
  2. Barr D, Boven J, Gotwald W (1985) Phenetic studies of African army ant queens of the genus Dorylus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Systematic Entomology 10: 1–10. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1985.tb00560.x
  3. Wheeler G (1943) The larvae of the army ants. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 36: 319–332. doi: 10.1093/aesa/36.2.319
  4. Wheeler G, Wheeler J (1984) The larvae of the army ants: a revision. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57: 263–275.
  5. Fabricius J (1793) Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, adjectis synonimis, locis observationibus, descriptionibus. Tome 2. C. G. Proft, Hafniae [= Copenhagen], 519 pp.
  6. Savage T (1849) The driver ants of western Africa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 4: 195–200.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Gotwald W (1995) Army ants: the biology of social predation. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, xviii + 302 pp.
  8. Emery C (1895b) Die Gattung Dorylus Fab. und die systematische Eintheilung der Formiciden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie und Biologie der Tiere 8: 685–778.
  9. Emery C (1910) Hymenoptera. Fam. Formicidae. Subfam. Dorylinae. Genera Insectorum 102: 1–35.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 Kronauer D, Schöning C, Vilhelmsen L, Boomsma J (2007) A molecular phylogeny of Dorylus army ants provides evidence for multiple evolutionary transitions in foraging niche. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7: Article 56, 11 pp. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-56
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Schöning C, Njagi W, Kinuthia W (2008) Prey spectra of two swarm-raiding army ant species in East Africa. Journal of Zoology 274: 85–93.
  12. Brady S, Schultz T, Fisher B, Ward P (2006) Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103: 18172–18177. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0605858103
  13. 13.0 13.1 Brady S, Fisher B, Schultz T, Ward P (2014) The rise of army ants and their relatives: diversification of specialized predatory doryline ants. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 93. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-14-93
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Raignier A, Boven J (1955) Étude taxonomique, biologique et biométrique des Dorylus du sous-genre Anomma (Hymenoptera Formicidae). Annales du Musée Royal du Congo Belge. Nouvelle Série in Quarto. Sciences Zoologiques 2: 1–359.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 Raignier A (1972) Sur l’origine des nouvelles sociétés des Fourmis voyageuses africaines (Hyménoptères formicidae, Dorylinae). Insectes Sociaux 19: 153–170. doi: 10.1007/BF02226624
  16. Berghoff S, Weissflog A, Linsenmair K, Hashim R, Maschwitz U (2002a) Foraging of a hypogaeic army ant: a long neglected majority. Insectes Sociaux 49: 133–141. doi: 10.1007/s00040-002-8292-0
  17. Berghoff S, Weissflog A, Linsenmair K, Mohamed M, Maschwitz U (2002b) Nesting habits and colony com-position of the hypogaeic army ant Dorylus (Dichthadia) laevigatus Fr. Smith. Insectes Sociaux 49: 1–8. doi: 10.1007/PL00012662
  18. Berghoff S, Gadau J, Winter T, Linsenmair K, Maschwitz U (2003a) Sociobiology of hypogaeic army ants: characterization of two sympatric Dorylus species on Borneo and their colony conflicts. Insectes Sociaux 50: 139–147. doi: 10.1007/s00040-003-0642-z
  19. Berghoff S, Maschwitz U, Linsenmair K (2003b) Influence of the hypogaeic army ant Dorylus (Dichthadia) laevigatus on tropical arthropod communities. Oecologia 135: 149–157. doi: 10.1007/s00442-002-1173-4
  20. Weissflog A, Sternheim E, Dorow W, Berghoff S, Maschwitz U (2000) How to study subterranean army ants: a novel method for locating and monitoring field populations of the South East Asian army ant Dorylus (Dichthadia) laevigatus Smith, 1857 (Formicidae, Dorylinae) with observations on their ecology. Insectes Sociaux 47: 317–324. doi: 10.1007/PL00001723
  21. Savage T (1847) On the habits of the ‘Drivers’ or visiting ants of West Africa. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 5: 1–15. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.1847.tb01686.x
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Schöning C, Njagi W, Franks N (2005b) Temporal and spatial patterns in the emigrations of the army ant Dorylus (Anomma) molestus at Mt Kenya. Ecological Entomology 30: 532–540. doi: 10.1111/j.0307-6946.2005.00720.x
  23. 23.0 23.1 Kronauer D, Schöning C, Pedersen J, Boomsma J, Gadau J (2004) Extreme queen-mating frequency and colony fission in African army ants. Molecular Ecology 13: 2381–2388. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02262.x
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 Kronauer D, Boomsma J (2007a) Do army ant queens re-mate later in life? Insectes Sociaux 54: 20–28. doi: 10.1007/s00040-007-0904-2
  25. Kronauer D, Berghoff S, Powell S, Denny A, Edwards K, Franks N, Boomsma J (2006) A reassessment of the mating system characteristics of the army ant Eciton burchellii. Naturwissenschaften 93: 402–406. doi: 10.1007/s00114-006-0121-2
  26. 26.0 26.1 Kronauer D, Boomsma J (2007b) Multiple queens means fewer mates. Current Biology 17:R753-R755. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.06.057
  27. Schneirla T (1971) Army ants. A study in social organization. (Edited by H. R. Topoff.). W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco, xx + 349 pp.
  28. Boven J, Lévieux J (1968) Les Dorylinae de la savane de Lamto (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Annales de l’Universite de l’Abidjan (Sciences), series E, 1: 351–358.
  29. Voessler J (1905) Die ostafrikanische Treiberameise (Siafu). Pflanzer 1: 289–302.
  30. Leroux J (1982) Ecologie des populations de dorylines Anomma nigricans dans la région de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire). Pub-lications du Laboratoire de Zoologie, No. 22. – Ecole Nor-male Supérieure, Paris, 158 pp.
  31. Leroux J (1977) Densité des colonies et observations sur les nids de dorylines Anomma nigricans Illiger (Hym. Formicidae) dans la région de Lamto (Côte d’Ivoire). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 102: 51–62.
  32. Gotwald W, Cunningham-van Someren G (1990) A year in the life of an Old World army ant colony: spatial patterns in raiding and emigration. In: Veeresh G Mallik B Viraktamath C. Social Insects and the Environment. Proceedings of the Eleventh IUSSI Congress. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, 714–715.
  33. Kronauer D (2009) Recent advances in army ant biology (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Myrmecological News 12: 51–65.
  34. 34.0 34.1 Schöning C, Kinuthia W, Franks N (2005a) Evolution of allometries in the worker caste of Dorylus army ants. Oikos 110: 231–240. doi: 10.1111/j.0030-1299.2005.13672.x
  35. Schöning C, Moffett M (2007) Driver ants invading a termite nest – why do the most catholic predators of all seldom take this abundant prey? Biotropica 39: 663–667. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2007.00296.x
  36. Rettenmeyer C (1963) Behavioral studies of army ants. University of Kansas Science Bulletin 44: 281–465.
  37. Darlington J (1985) Attacks by doryline ants and termite nest defences (Hymenoptera; Formicidae; Isoptera; Termitidae). Sociobiology 11: 189–200.
  38. Roonwal M (1975) Plant-pest status of root-eating ant, Dorylus orientalis, with notes on taxonomy, distribution and habits (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Journal of the Bombay Naural History Society 72: 305–313.
  39. Felsenstein J (1985) Phylogenies and the comparative method. American Naturalist 1–15. doi: 10.1086/284325
  40. Peters M, Likare S, Kraemer M (2008) Effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on flocks of African ant-following birds. Ecological Applications 18: 847–858. doi: 10.1890/07-1295.1
  41. Kingdon J (1997) The Kingdon field guide to African mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, 464 pp.
  42. Schöning C, Ellis D, Fowler A, Sommer V (2007) Army ant availability and consumption by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes vellerosus) at Gashaka / Nigeria. Journal of Zoology 271: 125–133. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00177.x
  43. Sanz C, Schöning C, Morgan D (2010) Chimpanzees prey on army ants with specialized tool set. American Journal of Primatology 72: 17–24. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20744
  44. Humle T (2011) Ant-dipping: how ants have shed light on culture. In: Matsuzawa T Humle T Sugiyama Y (Eds) The chmipanzees of Bossou and Nimba. Primatology Monographs. Springer, Japan, 97–105. doi: 10.1007/978-4-431-53921-6_10
  45. Kronauer D, Peters M, Schöning C, Boomsma J (2011) Hybridization in East African swarm-raiding army ants. Frontiers in Zoology 8: 20, 13 pp.
  46. Barth M, Moritz R, Pirk C, Kraus F (2013) Male-biased dispersal promotes large scale gene flow in a subterranean army ant, Dorylus (Typhlopone) fulvus. Population Ecology 55: 523–533. doi: 10.1007/s10144-013-0383-4
  47. Wilson E (1964) The true army ants of the Indo-Australian area (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae). Pacific Insects 6: 427–483.