Cyrtandra ootensis

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Wagner W, Wagner A, Lorence D (2013) Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands. PhytoKeys 30 : 33–64, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-11-27, version 40031, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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author = {Wagner, Warren L. AND Wagner, Anthony J. AND Lorence, David H.},
journal = {PhytoKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands},
year = {2013},
volume = {30},
issue = {},
pages = {33--64},
doi = {10.3897/phytokeys.30.6147},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-11-27, version 40031, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}


RIS/ Endnote:

T1 - Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands
A1 - Wagner W
A1 - Wagner A
A1 - Lorence D
Y1 - 2013
JF - PhytoKeys
JA -
VL - 30
IS -
UR -
SP - 33
EP - 64
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-11-27, version 40031, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/phytokeys.30.6147

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Wagner2013PhytoKeys30">{{Citation
| author = Wagner W, Wagner A, Lorence D
| title = Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands
| journal = PhytoKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 30
| issue =
| pages = 33--64
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/phytokeys.30.6147
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2023-06-09

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-11-27, version 40031, , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Gesneriaceae
Genus: Cyrtandra


Cyrtandra ootensis F. Br., Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 130: 273. 1935.Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Cyrtandra ootensis F. Br. var. fatuhivensis Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 47: 30. 1981. Type. Marquesas Islands: Fatu Hiva: Teavapuhiau Pass (above Ouia Valley), under , Crossostylis, Metrosideros, 720 m, 1–3 August 1977, B. H. Gagné 1244 (holotype: US-02969231!; isotypes: BISH [4]!).
  • Cyrtandra ootensis F. Br. var. mollissima Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 47: 30. 1981. Type. Marquesas Islands: Hiva. Oa: Montagnes NW du Temetiu, entre la haute vallée de Hanamenu et la crête de Temetiu-Feani, 960 m, 23 October 1975, P. A. Schäfer 5923 (holotype: US-2969230!; isotypes: BISH!, P).
  • Cyrtandra ootensis F. Br. var. quaylei Fosberg & Sachet, Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 47: 31. 1981. Type. Marquesas Islands: Ua Huka: 600 m, 9 November 1922, E. H. Quayle 1755 (holotype: BISH-145694!).


Marquesas Islands: Hiva Oa: Ootua, 800 m, 15 December 1921, F.B.H. Brown 961 (holotype: BISH-509956!).


Shrub 1.5–4 m. Leaves opposite, elliptic to ovate, 12–28 × 5-15 cm, whitish to ferruginous pubescent, or rarely nearly glabrous, and then youngest leaves with at least some hairs, margin crenate-serrate, base unequal and broadly cuneate to attenuate, apex obtuse to acute or acuminate, petioles (1.5–) 4–10cm. Flowers 1–3 in cymes arising in the leaf axils, peduncles 5-90 mm long, ca. 1–2 mm in diameter, pedicels subtending a central pedicel 2–50 mm long, bracts lanceolate, 2–10 mm long; calyx pale green or occasionally white, 11–20 mm long, divided nearly to base, deciduous, usually densely pubescent externally; corolla tube 25–32 mm long, lobes 5–6 mm long; ovary 7–15 mm long, pubescent, style 6–18 mm long, pubescent. Berries pubescent, cylindrical, 2.1 cm long. Seeds ovoid, 0.4-0.5 mm long, the coats sculptured with coarse polygonal reticulations.


Marquesas Islands, occurring on Hiva Oa and Tahuata, and two collections from Ua Huka, 670–1130 m.


Cyrtandra ootensis is known from ridges and summit areas of montane wet forest dominated by Metrosideros collina and other shrubs and trees such as species of Coprosma, Crossostylis, Freycinetia, Ilex, Melicope, Polyscias, Psychotria, Weinmannia,and Xylosma.

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Category: Endangered EN B1ab (i,ii,iii) + 2ab (i,ii,iii). B2: total area of occupancy less than 5000 km2 (ca. 564 km2). B1a, severely fragmented; B1b (i–iii), habitat continuing decline inferred. The suitable habitat for Cyrtandra ootensis on Ua Huka (ca. 83 km2), Ua Pou (ca. 105 km2), Hiva Oa (ca. 315 km2), and Tahuata (ca. 61 km2) is restricted to mountain slopes and summits, indicated as an endangered environment that is threatened by human activity (deforestation and fire), feral animals, and invasive plants, reducing the extent of the forest (Florence and Lorence 1997[1]; Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg 1998[2]; Meyer and Salvat 2009[3]).

Specimens examined

Marquesas Islands. Ua Huka: 9 November 1922, Quayle 1790 (BISH). Hiva Oa: Mt. Feani, trail from Atuona to Hanamenu, 1120 m, 4 March 1975, Oliver & Schäfer 3237 (BISH, CBG, US); Hanamenu region, up Hanamenu Valley to the drainages below and west of Temetiu, 884 m, 9°76'S, 139°W, 25 June 2003, Wood 10235 (PTBG); Hanamenu Valley off Hanamenu trail, 908 m, 9°47'49.6"S, 139°5'35"W, 2 August 2005, Perlman 19768 (BISH, NY, P, PAP, PTBG, US); trail toward Hanamenu, 884 m, 3 August 1988, Perlman 10207 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG[2], US); Temetiu region, drainages to southeast of Vaimete et Vaiumioi (source), headwaters of Hanamenu, 1067 m, 30 Jan 2003, Wood 10047 (PTBG); Temetiu, 1128 m, 9°49'S, 139°4'W, 25 August 1995, Wood 4404 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US); N side of Mt. Temetiu, 1100 m, 23 March 1929, Pacific Entomol. Surv. 141, (BISH, UC); Teakatau, Valley on N side of Hanamenu Trail heading down to Hanamenu past summit crest, valley between Teakatau and Tepuna, 927 m, 26 August 1995, Perlman & Meyer 14896 (PAP, PTBG, US), 933 m, 14893 (PAP, PTBG, US, WU); Atuona, 1000 m, 8 December 1921, Brown 828 (BISH); Atuona, 1100 m, 9 October 1930, Pacific Entomol. Surv. Ex 141 (BISH); chemin d’Atuona à Hanamenu par Feani, hautes pentes, côté Atuona, 935 m, 12 February 1975, Schäfer 5213 (MPU, US); Ootua, 800 m, Brown 961 (BISH); Mt. Ootua, central part, 650 m, 27 July 1977, Gagné 1176 (BISH), 900 m, 29 July 1977, Gagné 1213 (BISH); Mt. Ootua, off road between Airport and Puamau, on NW side of summit, 853 m, 21 August 1995, Perlman & Wood 14865 (PTBG, US, WU); Mts. of Vaipikopiko, new road from Hanaiapa, cut off to Vaipahee Falls, on Kaava Ridge, Vaipikopiko side, 890 m, 8 August 1988, Perlman 10232 (BISH, MO, P, PAP, PTBG, US). Tahuata: Haaoiputeoma, near satelite dish, NE from Vaitahu to summit ridge, 610–762 m, 1–2 September 1995, Wood 4456 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US); summit ridge near Haaiputeomo, satellite dish region NE of Vaitahu, 762–823 m, 9°57'19"S, 139°5'74"W, 17– 19 July 1997, Wood 6571 (PTBG, US), 6578 (BISH, PAP, PTBG, US); ridge between Amatea and Haaoiputeomo, S facing slope, below old antenna site, 768 m, 9°56'S, 139°4'W, 19 July 1997, Perlman 16018 (AD, BISH, MO, P, PAP, PTBG, US, WU), 741 m, 16016 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US). Fatu Hiva: ‘Omo’a Valley, 800 m, 20 January 1922, Brown 935 (BISH); slopes of Mounanui above Vaieenui Falls, on ridge top, below Maunanui, 847 m, 26 July 1988, Perlman & Florence 10171 (BISH, PTBG), 10172 (BISH, PTBG); slopes of Mounanui, 719 m, 10°28'6.63"S, 138°38'18"W, 16 July 2005, Perlman 19668 (BISH, P, PAP, PTBG, US); on ridges and gulches W side of Mounanui, 2400 ft, 10 September 1995, Perlman 14978 (AD, BISH, MO, MPU, NY, P, PAP, PTBG, US, WU); slopes of Moouanui above Vaieenui Falls, on ridge top, below Mounanui, 2300 ft, 26 July 1988, Perlman & Florence 10174 (BISH, PTBG, US); Mounanui, on SW side of peak, in gulch back, at base of waterfall, 677 m, 9 September 1995, Perlman 14969 (AD, BISH, MO, P, PAP, PTBG, US, WU); Mt. Touaouoho, on NW side of peak, along ridges between Touaouho and Teavapuhiau, 616 m, 8 September 1995, Perlman & Wood 14964 (AD, BISH, MO, P, PAP, PTBG, US, WU), 725 m, 14962, (PTBG), 793 m, 14961 (PTBG, US), 2200 ft, 14965 (PTBG, US); Teavapuhiau Pass (above Ouia Valley), 700 m, 1–3 August 1977, Gagné 1245 (BISH); slopes and summit from Punaitai to Tekou summit, 830–1120 m, 25 July 1988, Wagner et al. 6193 (BISH, US), 850 m, 6201 (BISH, US).


When Fosberg and Sachet (1981)[4] described the three varieties of Cyrtandra ootensis they stated that the species was not uniform in the variation of density of pubescence, density of toothing on leaf margins, length of petiole, in the length and openness of the inflorescence, and in the width of the corolla. They also pointed out that there was not much correlation among these variable characters, but nevertheless subdivided Cyrtandra ootensis into four varieties. The significant amount of new collections since those available to Fosberg and Sachet since 1981[4] have shown that there is essentially complete intergradations among these characters and there are no clear ecologically or geographically based morphological patterns, and we have therefore placed these names into synonymy. The only pattern of variation noted is the large-leaved more glabrate plants discussed under Cyrtandra feaniana that may represent hybridization on Fatu Hiva. Another case of possible hybridization on Tahuata is noted by the collections Wood 6571, which is included in Cyrtandra ootensis, butis intermediate toward Cyrtandra feaniana. Wood 6570 collected close by is typical of Cyrtandra feaniana.

Taxon Treatment

  • Wagner, W; Wagner, A; Lorence, D; 2013: Revision of Cyrtandra (Gesneriaceae) in the Marquesas Islands PhytoKeys, 30: 33-64. doi

Other References

  1. Florence J, Lorence D (1997) Introduction to the flora and vegetation of the Marquesas Islands. Allertonia 7: 226-237.
  2. Mueller-Dombois D, Fosberg F (1998) Marquesas. Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer, New York, 444–460.
  3. Meyer J, Salvat B (2009) French Polynesia, Biology. In: Gillespie R Clague D (Eds) Encyclopedia of Islands. University of California Press, Berkeley, 332-338.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Fosberg F, Sachet M (1981) Polynesian Plant Studies 6–18. Smiths. Contr. Bot. 47: 1-38. doi: 10.5479/si.0081024X.47