Cymindis punctigera punctigera
- 1 Taxonavigation
- 2 Name
- 3 Type area
- 4 Notes about types, homonymy, and synonymy
- 5 Diagnosis
- 6 Description
- 7 Variation
- 8 Collection notes and habitat
- 9 Geographical distribution
- 10 Morphological affinities
- 11 Chorological affinities
- 12 Material examined
- 13 Taxon Treatment
- 14 Images
- 15 Other References
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- Cymindis punctigera LeConte 1851: 178, Type material: two males, one female, LeConte Collection [MCZC]. LECTOTYPE (here selected), first male, labeled: disc [green-gold]; Type [white paper] “66”[red paper]; “P. punctigera LeC Col” [handwritten]. PARALECTOTYPE; second specimen female, labeled same as lectotype, and “punctigera 2”; third specimen male, labeled same as lectotype, and “punctigera 3”. (Two more specimens, each labeled “Ariz” and “punctigera 4” and “punctigera 5”, respectively, were probably assigned to this species at a later date and are not recognized as types).
- Pinacodera punctigera (LeConte 1851); Chaudoir 1875: 4. – Horn 1882: 148. – Bates 1884: 296. – Fall and Cockerell 1907: 160. – Casey 1920: 284.
- Apenes punctigera Blackwelder 1944: 62.
- Cymindis blanda Casey 1913: 184. Type material three females, Casey collection [USNM]. LECTOTYPE (here selected), labeled: “Douglas Ariz. Aug. F. H. Snow; San Bernardino Ranch 3750 ft”; “TYPE USNM 47608” [red paper]; “blanda Csy” [handwritten]. PARALECTOTYPES each labeled similarly to the lectotype, and labeled “paralectotype 2” and “paralectotype 3” respectively. TYPE LOCALITY. – San Bernardino Ranch, 24 kilometers east of Douglas, Cochise County, Arizona, U.S.A. sp. n.
- Pinacodera blanda (Casey); 1920: 281.
- Pinacodera subcarinata Casey 1920: 281. HOLOTYPE female labeled: “Ariz; Casey 1925”; “TYPE USNM 47609”; “subcarinata Csy” [handwritten] [USNM]. syn. n.
“Near the junction of the Colorado and Gila Rivers,” Yuma County, Arizona, U.S.A.
Notes about types, homonymy, and synonymy
The reason for assigning Cymindis punctigera to Apenes (Blackwelder 1944: 62) is not apparent. The type specimens of the named forms, taken in isolation, are distinctive and differ from one another as previous authors indicate. Examination of material geographically adjacent to these forms reveals that this species is quite variable throughout its range, and characters from Casey’s descriptions are not diagnostic.
Specimens of this subspecies (Fig. 22A-B) exhibit little to no rugosity on dorsal surface of head from between eyes toward clypeus.
With character states of subgenus Pinacodera and species Cymindis punctigera restricted as follows: OBL 7.75 - 11.33 mm. Length (n= 10 males, 10 females): head 0.72 – 1.04, pronotum 1.40 – 2.34, elytra 4.41 – 6.91, metepisternum 0.94 – 1.54 mm; width: head 1.60 – 2.28 , pronotum 1.80 – 2.92, elytra 3.16 – 4.58, metepisternum 0.52 – 0.88 mm.
Body proportions. HW/HL 2.0 – 2.32; PWM/PL 1.18 – 1.31; EL/EW 1.28- 1.51; ML/MW 1.44 – 1.96.
Color (Fig. 22A-B). Dorsum of head testaceous to rufo-piceous, dorsum of pronotum and elytra testaceous to rufo-piceous, rarely with lighter colored elytral margins; antennae testaceous to rufo-piceous; palpi testaceous to rufo-piceous; epipleura testaceous to rufo-piceous. Ventral thoracic sclerites and abdominal sterna testaceous to rufo-piceous.
Metepisternum. Individuals are at least 1.44× as long as wide.
Hind wings. Macropterous or brachypterous.
Male Genitalia. Phallus (Fig. 26A) length 1.70 – 2.04 mm.
Within this subspecies, dorsal pilosity, body coloration and wing state are, to some extent, variable geographically. The least understood is seta length on the dorsal surface of individuals. In some areas (mainly montane) populations of Cymindis punctigera punctigera have uniformly long setae covering their dorsal surface while others from surrounding localities have setae so short that they are hardly visible at 50× magnification.
Color of the dorsal surface (Fig. 22A-B) varies from dark rufous over most of the species range (Fig. 22A) to predominantly testaceous to rufo- testaceous (Fig. 22B) in the Big Bend area of southwestern Texas.
Wing state and wing length vary in this subspecies. Examination of a few hundred individuals, from all known localities showed that Cymindis punctigera punctigera exhibits a general trend toward brachyptery in the periphery of its range and macroptery in the central portion (Fig. 29). Population samples from two localities (Washington Co., Utah and Riverside Co., California) included both macropterous and brachypterous individuals. As well, average length of wing rudiments of brachypterous specimens differed between localities with the shortest being from Nuevo Leon, the same place where members of Cymindis chevrolati exhibit the shortest average wing rudiments.
Collection notes and habitat
The known elevational ranges of Cymindis punctigera punctigera extends from 670 to 2500 m. Most specimens were found at elevations higher than 1000 m. Specimens were collected under stones and bark of trees in forests of oak, pine, mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torrey), in stands of acacia and desert willow (Chilopsis linearis Cav.). As well they occupy riparian temperate forests, meadow, desert and pond margin habitats. This subspecies has been collected from nests of packrats of the genus Neotoma.
The range of this subspecies (Fig. 29) extends in the southwestern United States from Lake Tahoe, California south through southern Utah and Nevada to western Texas south to the interior of Mexico, both sides of the Sierra Madre Occidental, east as far east as Nuevo Leon, south to Michoacan and as far west as Nayarit.
This subspecies is by definition the closest relative of Cymindis punctigera sulcipennis.
Cymindis punctigera punctigera is allopatric with Cymindis punctigera sulcipennis and all other species of the limbata group except Cymindis chevrolati and Cymindis platicollis platicollis, which are sympatric with it toward the eastern limits of its range.
I examined 385 specimens: 72 males and 98 females were dissected. For details see University of Alberta Strickland Virtual Entomology Museum Database (University of Alberta 2009).
- Hunting, W; 2013: A taxonomic revision of the Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini), including description of a new species from Florida, U.S.A. ZooKeys, 259: 1-73. doi
- LeConte J (1851) Descriptions of new species of Coleoptera, from California. Annals of the Lyceum of Natural History of New York 5: 125-184. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1852.tb00123.x
- Chaudoir M (1875) Genres aberrants du groupe des cymindides. Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou vol. 49, pt. 2, pp. 1–61
- Horn G (1882) Synopsis of the species of the tribe Lebiini. Tranactions of the American Entomological Society 10: 126–164, illus.
- Bates H (1884) Biologia Centrali-Americana, Insecta, Coleoptera, Cicindelidae supplementa, Carabidae supplementa vol. 1, pt. 1, 257–299, pl. xiii.
- Fall H, Cockerell T (1907) The Coleoptera of New Mexico. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 33: 145-272.
- Casey T (1920) Random studies among the American Caraboidea. In: Casey TL, Memoirs on the Coleoptera, Vol IX. New Era Publishing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, 133–299.
- Blackwelder R (1944) Checklist of the coleopterous insects of Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and South America. Part 1. Bulletin of the United States National Museum No. 185, 1–188.
- Casey T (1913) Studies in the Cicindelidae and Carabidae of America. Memoirs on the Coleoptera. Vol. 4, 1–192.
- University of Alberta (2009) E. H. Strickland Virtual Entomology museum Database. Retrieved August 25, 2009, Web site: http://www.entomology.museums.ualberta.ca/
- Kukalova-Peck J, Lawrence J (2004) Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major neopteran lineages: Evidence from hind wing characters. European Journal of Entomology 101 (1): 95-144.