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Three specimens, as follows. HOLOTYPE female, labeled: “MEXICO, Oaxaca/ 7100’ 21.8 mi./ n. Juchatengo/ VII.18-19.1966”; “George E. Ball/ D. R. Whitehead/ collectors” (USNM). PARATYPES two: female, labeled same as holotype (UASM); male, labeled: “MEXICO, Oaxaca/ Mt. Alban, near ruins/ Acacia scrub 6000 ft/ VI-3/4-82/ Rolf L. Aalbu, col.” (USNM).
Ridge top, Sierra de Miahuatlan, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W.
A Latinized eponym, masculine gender, genitive case, based on the surname of Donald R. Whitehead, now deceased, one of the collectors of the type series of this species.
See key, above.
Size and proportions. Small, OBL 4.13–4.40 mm; EW 1.36–1.48 mm A1L/A2-4L 1.03–1.11; HW/PW 1.08.
Color. Body testaceous, in life almost white; appendages slightly paler; vestiture golden.
Habitus (Fig. 1A). Flat, overall. Head capsule (dorsal aspect, Fig. 2A) oviform, broadly rounded posteriolaterally. Eyes (Fig. 3A) flat, hardly perceptible, ommatidia not evident at 50×. Pronotum narrow. Elytra narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly, lateral margins distinctly bowed.
Microsculpture. Dorsal surface of head capsule (including clypeus) and pronotum smooth, microlines not evident; labrum and elytra with microlines fine (not easily seen at 50× or lower magnification), mesh pattern isodiametric. Ventral surface with microlines fine, generally transverse, sculpticells rather short.
Luster. Dorsal surface of head and pronotum shiny, elytra somewhat duller.
Body vestiture and punctation. Dorsal surface of head and pronotum sparsely punctate, vestiture sparse. Elytra with punctation and vestiture dense, vestitural setae decumbent. Abdomen. Abdominal sterna IV-VI with punctation rather sparse, vestitural setae decumbent.
Fixed setae. Head (Fig. 4A, 4C): clypeus one pair; head capsule with anterior pair of supraorbitals (asos) above eyes; posterior pair of supraorbitals (psos) posteriad eyes; one pair of postocular setae (pos) immediately behind eyes, laterally; one pair of occipital setae (ocs) posteriorly and mediad eyes; also one pair posterior supernumerary setae (psus) laterad and close to posterior supraorbital setae. Antennomere 1 (Fig. 4B, as1) with single long seta distally, and row of several semi-erect setae more proximally (Fig. 4B, as2, as3). Pronotum with two pairs of lateral marginal setae, anterior pair in anterior 1/8, posterior pair at posteriolateral angles. Prosternum with one pair paramedial setae anterioventrally (cf. Fig. 9B). Elytra: each elytron anteriorly with parascutellar seta; lateral setae about 21 (one group anteriorly, one group posteriorly, and single seta medially). Abdominal sterna IV–VI each with one pair of ambulatory setae, sternum VII with one pair of long setae near posterior margin.
Head, dorsal aspect (Fig. 1A). Postoccipital suture evident. Frontoclypeal suture present, with frons and clypeus separate. Genal sulcus (Fig. 4A, gs) broad, ventral margin sinuous.
Eyes. (Fig. 3A) Small, flat, ommatidia not evident at 50×, or lower magnification.
Antennae. (Fig. 4A). Filiform, extended about body length. Antennomere 1 (a1) rather slender, slightly longer than antennomeres a2-a4; antennomere 2 short, about half length of a3; antennomeres 3–11 narrow, cylindrical, distinctly longer than wide.
Mouthparts. As described for Zuphium genus-group, above. Labrum (Fig. 5A).
Rectangular, lateral margins rounded; anterior margin irregularly convex; six dorsal setae, lateral setae longer than four medials. Epipharynx (Fig. 5B).
Mandibles (Figs 6A–6F) Maxillae (Figs 8A–8B). Labium, ventral aspect (Fig. 8C).
Pronotum (Fig. 1A). Anterior margin truncate, lateral margins markedly sinuate posteriorly, posteriolateral angles prominent, dentiform, slightly anteriad posterior margin; surface impressions (anterior and posterior transverse and median longitudinal) shallow; lateral grooves and posteriolateral impressions moderately deep.
Pterothorax. Metasternum short; metepisternum quadrate.
Elytra (Fig. 1A). Separate, not fused along suture. Each elytron more or less rectangular, but narrowed anteriorly and posteriorly, lateral margin thus distinctly bowed; humerus projected anteriorly, basal ridge sinuate; apical margin truncate, with narrow band of membrane; surface with striae very shallow, intervals almost flat.
Hind wings. Short stubs, brachypterous.
Abdomen. Sternum VII with apical margin truncate.
Male genitalia (Figs 10A–10C). Anopic. Phallus narrow (PW/PL 0.238), slightly curved ventrally, narrowed apically, apical margin rounded, apical portion very short (AL/PL 0.063), ostial membrane extensive (OM/PL 0.317). Left paramere (lp) conchoid. Right paramere (rp) styliform, relatively long (RP/LP 0.317).
Female genitalia: ovipositor (Figs 11A–11C). Gonocoxite 1 (gc1) with patch of long trichoid setae distally on ventral surface. Gonocoxite 2 (gc2) short, thick; in lateral aspect falciform, apex pointed, row of four long trichoid setae dorso- and ventro-laterally; in dorso-ventral aspect, broad, paddle-like, apex deeply notched; dorsal surface glabrous except for dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral trichoid setae; ventral surface toward margins with row of pit pegs (mpp), preapical setose organ (pso) circuloid, with two furrow pegs (fp) and two very short nematiform setae (ns).
Female genital tract (Fig. 12A). Bursa copulatrix (bc) ended in an expanded bulbous anterior extension (bs). Common oviduct (co) inserted in bursa copulatrix at base of the anterior extension. Spermatheca (sp, broken) slender, inserted on bursal sac beside insertion point of spermathecal gland duct (spgd); latter with swelling proximad spermathecal gland (spg). Without helminthoid sclerite. Without secondary spermathecal gland.
Collecting notes and habitat
The specimens from the type locality were collected in the remains of a cloud forest. One was on the ground, in leaf litter; using a Bowie knife, the other was dug out of wet wood of a pine log, near the ground surface. The Monte Alban specimen was likely taken from a dark crevice, “where the temperature was much cooler than outside“ (Rolf Aalbu, personal communication). Judging from the structural features of the type material, this species may be troglophilic, but not troglobitic, as are its Brazilian congeners (Gnaspini et al. 1998; Pellegrini and Ferreira 2011b).
Attached to the holotype was a fungus of the species Rhachomyces zuphii Thaxter (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) (determiner of fungus not indicated on label), which is now attached to a pinned rectangular piece of clear plastic by a drop of balsam.
(Map 1). This species is known only from two montane localities in the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
Type specimens, only. For label details, see above.
- Ball, G; Shpeley, D; 2013: Western Hemisphere Zuphiini: descriptions of Coarazuphium whiteheadi, new species, and Zuphioides, new genus, and classification of the genera (Coleoptera, Carabidae) ZooKeys, 315: 17-54. doi
- Gnaspini P, Vanin S, Godoy N (1998) A new genus of troglobitic carabid beetle from Brazil (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Zuphiini). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo 40: 297-309.
- Pellegrini T, Ferreira R (2011b) Coarazuphium tapiaguassu (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Zuphiini), a new Brazilian troglobitic beetle, with ultrastructural analysis and ecological considerations. Zootaxa 3116: 47-58.