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- Banksia spinulosa Sm. var. neoanglica A.S.George, Nuytsia 6: 315 (1988).
AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: Northern Tablelands, 900 m along Waterfall Way towards Ebor from turn-off to New England National Park, 22 May 2011, M.L. Stimpson 180, J.J. Bruhl & I.R. Telford; neotype: NSW; isoneotype: AD, BRI, CANB, CNS, K, MEL, NE, MO, PERTH. Figure 5. Banksia spinulosa Sm. var. cunninghamii (Sieber ex Rchb.) A.S.George, Nuytsia 3: 396 (1981) pro parte, excluding type.
Banksia cunninghamii Sieber ex Rchb. subsp. A: G.J. Harden in G.J. Harden (ed.), Flora of New South Wales 1: 71 (1991); G.J Harden, D.W. Harden & D.C. Godden (2000) Proteaceae of New South Wales: 170 (2000); G.J. Harden in G.J. Harden (ed.), Flora of New South Wales 2, edn 2: 86 (2002).
The protologue of Banksia spinulosa var. neoanglica quotes the type:
“1 km N of turnoff to New England National Park, Ebor–Armidale road, N.S.W., 6 April 1986, S.C. Clemesha; holo: NSW; iso: CANB, BRI, MEL, PERTH”.
No specimens so labelled have been located in NSW, BRI, CANB or MEL herbaria after repeated searches. Alex George (pers. comm. 2010–2011) could find no specimens in PERTH and he believes it likely that specimens were never distributed. Accordingly, we have nominated a neotype, collected from the same population as the type.
Shrubs with 2–8(–10) stems to 2.5 m from a lignotuber or trees to 7 m tall. Juvenile leaves: petiole 2–3.8 mm long; lamina narrowly obovate, 30–66 mm long, 5–11 mm wide, strongly dentate along full leaf margin, apex bidentate. Adult leaves: petiole 1.8–3.5 mm long; lamina linear, 43–75 mm long, 3–4.5 mm wide, occasionally toothed towards the usually unidentate, occasionally bidentate apex; adaxial surface glabrous, with colour after drying RHS greyed green group 195a-d; abaxial surface felted, colour after drying RHS greyed white group 156a–d. Involucral bracts subulate, thickened at base, 3–15mm long, grey-brown pubescent. Conflorescence 84–119 mm long, 70–85 mm diameter at anthesis; floral pairs 12–14(–16) around the circumference of the conflorescence axis. Common bract with a single thickened keel on the abaxial surface that extends from the apex of the bract down to the visible part of the base of the bract, distal margins slightly concave, apex rounded, indumentum villous, lower third of bract uniformly brown and upper two thirds uniformly green (Fig. 3A). Perianth 18–23 mm long, pubescent, yellow–orange at maturity but may be green, orange or yellow during developmental stages; limb c. 3.5 mm long; anthers c. 1 mm long. Style 25–38 mm long, apically hooked, colour grading from red to maroon to black just prior to anthesis. Infructescence 85–120 mm long, 35–45mm diam. Seed 15–19 mm long, including wing. Figure 6.
Banksia neoanglica occurs on the McPherson Range, just north of the Queensland–New South Wales border, Mt Warning and the eastern edge of the New England Tableland southwards to near Hanging Rock, New South Wales. Figure 7.
Grows in sandy soil on granite and acid volcanics, rarely on basalt, in Eucalyptus open forest (Figure 6), woodland and heath at altitudes of 850–1480 m. The species is sympatric with Banksia integrifolia subsp. monticola throughout its range, with Banksia marginata sensu lato on the Gibraltar Range and with Banksia conferta in the Daves Creek area.
The growth forms that Banksia neoanglica assume appear to be dependent upon the exposure to fire (Whelan and York 1998). In areas where there have been no fires for more than 15 years, such as Lamington National Park, Queensland, and some parts of Gibraltar Range, New South Wales (pers. comm. Justin Kreis 25 May 2010), a single-stemmed habit is found. Here, the lignotuber is present as a stem thickening just above or just below the soil surface, and branchlets may sprout from epicormic buds up to 30 cm above the ground. This single-stemmed form of Banksia neoanglica behaves like an obligate seeder with a heavy infructescence load and follicles open spontaneously without fire. More commonly the plants are multi-stemmed, with up to 2–8(–10) stems from a subterranean lignotuber carry a much lower infructescence load, usually 1–3(–5) infructesences per plant. Fire is required to open the follicles.
The species is widespread, often locally common, and is not considered at risk. It is conserved in several reserves: Lamington, Springbrook and Girraween National Parks in Queensland, and Boonoo Boonoo, Gibraltar Range and New England National Parks and Torrington State Conservation Area in New South Wales.
Selected specimens examined
AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Moreton District: McPherson Range, Lamington National Park, Daves Creek track, M.L. Stimpson 79 (BRI, NE, NSW); Darling Downs District: Girraween National Park, track to Mt Norman, 21 Jan. 2009, I.R. Telford 13278 & J.J. Bruhl (NE). New South Wales: North Coast: Mount Warning, 3 Oct. 1939, F.A. Rodway s.n. (NSW); Northern Tablelands: 19 km E of Deepwater on Miles Shaw Rd, Butterleaf State Forest, J.T. Hunter 3750 & P.J. Clarke (NE); ); 0. 4 km N of Torrington, 19 Nov 1972, J.B. Williams s.n. (NE); Pheasant Mountain, 32 km NE of Guyra, 24 Apr. 1972, H.J. Wissmann s.n. (NE); Mount Chaelundi, E side just below crest, J.T. Hunter 157 & V.H. Hunter (NE); New England National Park, Banksia Point, M.L. Stimpson 28 (BRI, NE, NSW); NE of Bakers Downfall Hill, Nundle State Forest, J.R. Hosking 1877 (CANB, MEL, NE, NSW).
Resting buds start to expand in late January and conflorescences are fully developed by late March with flowering continuing until early July. These times are dependent on climatic conditions.
Extensive experiments conducted between May 1986 and July 1987 found that the New England population of Banksia neoanglica studiedwas autogamous (Vaughton 1988).
- Stimpson, M; Weston, P; Telford, I; Bruhl, J; 2012: First instalment in resolution of the Banksia spinulosa complex (Proteaceae): B. neoanglica, a new species supported by phenetic analysis, ecology and geography PhytoKeys, 14: 57-80. doi
- Whelan R, York J (1998) Post-fire germination of Hakea sericea and Petrophile sessilis after spring burning. Australian Journal of Botany 46: 367-376. doi: 10.1071/BT97075
- Vaughton G (1988) Pollination and seed set of Banksia spinulosa: evidence of autogamy. Australian Journal of Botany 36: 633-642. doi: 10.1071/BT9880633