Anthopleura pallida

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González-Muñoz R, Simões N, Tello-Musi J, Rodríguez E (2013) Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico. ZooKeys 341 : 77–106, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38223, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anthopleura_pallida&oldid=38223 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{González-Muñoz2013ZooKeys341,
author = {González-Muñoz, Ricardo AND Simões, Nuno AND Tello-Musi, José Luis AND Rodríguez, Estefanía},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico},
year = {2013},
volume = {341},
issue = {},
pages = {77--106},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.341.5816},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/5816/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38223, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anthopleura_pallida&oldid=38223 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico
A1 - González-Muñoz R
A1 - Simões N
A1 - Tello-Musi J
A1 - Rodríguez E
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 341
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.341.5816
SP - 77
EP - 106
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38223, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anthopleura_pallida&oldid=38223 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.341.5816

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="González-Muñoz2013ZooKeys341">{{Citation
| author = González-Muñoz R, Simões N, Tello-Musi J, Rodríguez E
| title = Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 341
| issue =
| pages = 77--106
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.341.5816
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/5816/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-07-05

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38223, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anthopleura_pallida&oldid=38223 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Actiniaria
Familia: Actiniidae
Genus: Anthopleura

Name

Anthopleura pallida Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1864Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Material examined

Alacranes reef (22°22'54"N, 89°40'59"W; four specimens).

Diagnosis

Fully expanded oral disc and tentacles 10–19 mm in diameter. Oral disc narrow, smooth, 3–8 mm in diameter, pale green or gray (Figure 4A). Tentacles hexamerously arranged in three cycles (24 in number), smooth, slender, relatively short (to 4–9 mm), tapering distally, inner ones longer than outer ones, contractile, whitish or gray, translucent, oral side with opaque white roundish spots (Figure 4A, B). Fosse well marked (Figure 4E). Column cylindrical, relatively elongate, 3–6 mm in diameter and 6–12 mm in height, with 12 longitudinal rows of verrucae from mid-column to distal margin (Figure 4B, G). Twelve endocoelic marginal projections forming acrorhagi (Figure 4B, E) with holotrichs, basitrichs, microbasic p-mastigophores, and spirocysts. Pedal disc well-developed, 4–8 mm in diameter, slightly wider than column (Figure 4B). Pedal disc and column white to pale green (Figure 4B). Mesenteries hexamerously arranged in 2–3 cycles: only first cycle perfect or first two cycles perfect and third imperfect; same number of mesenteries distally and proximally (12–32 pairs in specimens examined). Only first two cycles fertile (except directives); gonochoric (?), only spermatic cysts observed in specimens examined (Figure 4F). Two pairs of directives each attached to a well-developed siphonoglyph (Figure 4C). Retractor muscles diffuse; parietobasilar muscles well-developed with short mesogleal pennon (Figure 4D). Basilar muscles well-developed (Figure 4H). Marginal sphincter muscle endodermal, weak and diffuse (Figure 4E). Longitudinal muscles of tentacles ectodermal. Cnidom: basitrichs, microbasic b- and p-mastigophores, holotrichs, and spirocysts (Figure 4I–X; see Table 2).

Natural history

Anthopleura pallida inhabits the intertidal to shallow subtidal zone attached to coral on sandy shores, at 0.5 m. It is azooxanthellate and it broadcast spawns (Daly and den Hartog 2004[9]).

Distribution

Western Atlantic, from Bermuda (Verrill 1900[5]) to Virgin Islands (Duchassaing and Michelotti 1864[1]). This is the first record for the coast of Mexico; found in Alacranes reef (see Table 1).

Remarks

Currently there are three valid species of Anthopleura in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea: Anthopleura krebsi (Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860), Anthopleura texaensis (Carlgren and Hedgpeth, 1952), and Anthopleura pallida (Daly and den Hartog 2004[9]). Anthopleura pallida is distinguished mainly in column color and shape, and the arrangement of verrucae in rows, only present from the margin to the mid-column (Daly and den Hartog 2004[9]). However, in Anthopleura krebsi and Anthopleura texaensis, the column is stout rather than elongate, and the verrucae are arranged in rows along the entire column length, from margin to limbus (Daly and den Hartog 2004[9]). Although we found the marginal sphincter muscle diffuse rather than circumscribed-diffuse, all other features including external and internal anatomy and cnidae fit well with the redescription of Anthopleura pallida by Daly and den Hartog (2004)[9].

Taxon Treatment

  • González-Muñoz, R; Simões, N; Tello-Musi, J; Rodríguez, E; 2013: Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico ZooKeys, 341: 77-106. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Duchassaing P, Michelotti G (1864) Supplément au mémoire sur les Coralliaires des Antilles. Imprimerie Royale, Turin, 112 pp.
  2. Duchassaing P (1870) Revue des Zoophytes et des Spongiaires des Antilles. Chez Victor Masson et Fils, Paris, 52 pp.
  3. Boveri T (1893) Das Genus Gyractis, eine radial-symmetrische Actinienform. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik 7: 241-253.
  4. Duerden J (1897) The actiniarian family Aliciidae. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 20: 1-15. doi: 10.1080/00222939708680594
  5. 5.0 5.1 Verrill A (1900) Additions to the Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Bermudas. Anthozoa. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 10(2): 551-572.
  6. Verrill A (1905) The Bermuda Islands. Part IV. Geology and paleontology, and Part V. An account of the coral reefs. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 12: 45-348.
  7. Carlgren O (1949) A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kunglia Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, series 4, 1: 1–121.
  8. Cairns S, den Hartog J, Arneson C (1986) Class Anthozoa (Corals, Anemones). In: Sterrer W Schoepfer-Sterrer C (Eds) Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. John Wiley and Sons, New York: 164-194.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Daly M, den Hartog J (2004) Taxonomy, circumscription, and usage in Anthopleura (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Actiniaria) from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Bulletin of Marine Sciences 74(2): 401-421.

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