Anemonia sargassensis

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González-Muñoz R, Simões N, Tello-Musi J, Rodríguez E (2013) Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico. ZooKeys 341 : 77–106, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38236, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anemonia_sargassensis&oldid=38236 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{González-Muñoz2013ZooKeys341,
author = {González-Muñoz, Ricardo AND Simões, Nuno AND Tello-Musi, José Luis AND Rodríguez, Estefanía},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico},
year = {2013},
volume = {341},
issue = {},
pages = {77--106},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.341.5816},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/5816/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38236, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anemonia_sargassensis&oldid=38236 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico
A1 - González-Muñoz R
A1 - Simões N
A1 - Tello-Musi J
A1 - Rodríguez E
Y1 - 2013
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 341
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.341.5816
SP - 77
EP - 106
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38236, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anemonia_sargassensis&oldid=38236 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.341.5816

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="González-Muñoz2013ZooKeys341">{{Citation
| author = González-Muñoz R, Simões N, Tello-Musi J, Rodríguez E
| title = Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2013
| volume = 341
| issue =
| pages = 77--106
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.341.5816
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/5816/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-07-05

}} Versioned wiki page: 2013-10-08, version 38236, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Anemonia_sargassensis&oldid=38236 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Actiniaria
Familia: Actiniidae
Genus: Anemonia

Name

Anemonia sargassensis Hargitt, 1908Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Material examined

Alacranes reef (22°31'35"N, 89°46'05"W; two specimens), Cayo Arenas reef (22°07'05"N, 91°24'17"W; three specimens), La Gallega reef (19°13'20"N, 96°07'39"W; two specimens), Ingenieros reef (19°08'41"N, 96°05'22"W; two specimens).

Diagnosis

Fully expanded oral disc and tentacles 9–50 mm in diameter. Oral disc smooth, 4–22 mm in diameter, wider than column, dark-orange, brownish, greenish or dark-red, with white or yellowish endocoelic radial stripes tapering from tentacle bases (Figure 3A, B); mouth bright orange or pink (Figure 3B). Tentacles hexamerously arranged in 4–5 cycles (48–76 in number), moderately long (to 6–19 mm length), smooth, slender, tapering distally, inner ones longer than outer ones, contractile, dark-orange to reddish, sometimes with whitish or yellowish tips and pink or purple flashes (Figure 3A–C). Fossa well marked (Figure 3G). Poorly marked endocoelic marginal projections, 17–35, forming acrorhagi (Figure 3G), with holotrichs and basitrichs. Column cylindrical, short, smooth, 5–11 mm in diameter and 5–12 mm in height, dark-orange to dark-red. Pedal disc well-developed, 6–16 mm in diameter, wider than column (Figure 3C), bright-orange or pink. Mesenteries irregularly arranged in four cycles: first and second cycles perfect, others imperfect; more mesenteries proximally than distally (82–89 and 44–48 pairs respectively in specimens examined). Directives absent, 5–6 siphonoglyphs in specimens examined (Figure 3D, E). Gametogenic tissue not observed in specimens examined. Larvae observed in coelenteron of one specimen examined (Figure 3E). Retractor muscles diffuse to restricted; parietobasilar muscles weak with short mesogleal pennon (Figure 3F). Basilar muscles well-developed (Figure 3H). Marginal sphincter muscle endodermal, diffuse (Figure 3G). Longitudinal muscles of tentacles ectodermal (Figure 3I). Zooxanthellae present. Cnidom: basitrichs, holotrichs, microbasic b- and p-mastigophores and spirocysts (Figure 3J–U; see Table 2).

Table 2. Size and distribution of preserved cnidae from specimens examined. “ml” and “mw” are the means (length and width respectively), “dl” and “dw” are the standard deviations (length and width respectively), all in µm. “#1” and “#2” is the number of capsules measured per each specimen examined, “p” is the proportion of animals examined with respective to the type of cnida present.
Species Tissue Cnida Capsule length (µm) ml dl Capsule width (µm) mw dw #1 #2 p
Anemonia sargassensis Tentacle Basitrich 8.7–20.2 16.1 2.2 1.6–3.3 2.1 0.2 24 21 2/2
Basitrich 21.0–36.8 30.8 3.6 2.4–3.6 3.0 0.2 23 21 2/2
Spirocyst 15.1–40.0 25.3 7.0 2.2–3.5 2.9 0.3 21 20 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 13.9–33.5 24.9 3.9 2.1–4.0 3.2 0.4 20 26 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 16.8–24.9 19.7 2.2 3.3–5.6 4.5 0.6 6 9 2/2
Column Basitrich 13.3–22.6 18.3 2.4 2.1–3.0 2.5 0.2 21 20 2/2
Acrorhagi Basitrich 14.6–26.4 20.1 3.0 2.1–3.2 2.4 0.1 20 22 2/2
Basitrich 27.8–43.7 35.8 3.6 2.5–3.5 3.1 0.1 21 21 2/2
Holotrich 31.1–42.4 36.8 2.6 4.4–6.9 5.1 0.4 22 20 2/2
Filament Basitrich 12.9–32.7 19.2 5.2 1.8–3.0 2.4 0.2 20 27 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 24.6–33.9 28.6 2.5 3.7–6.0 4.7 0.6 22 21 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 15.0–24.5 20.4 2.3 3.7–5.9 4.8 0.5 21 22 2/2
Anthopleura pallida Tentacle Basitrich 12.6–20.6 16.8 2.0 1.7–2.6 2.1 0.2 23 21 2/2
Spirocyst 11.8–19.2 16.0 1.4 2.3–3.6 2.9 0.3 28 21 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 15.0–27.0 21.6 3.1 1.8–3.1 2.5 0.3 23 24 2/2
Basitrich 10.1–18.0 14.0 1.7 1.5–2.4 1.9 0.1 15 22 2/2
Spirocyst 11.2–19.5 16.2 1.9 2.3–3.7 2.8 0.3 12 21 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 20.9–28.3 24.6 2.7 2.8–4.4 3.3 0.5 5 1 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 13.4–23.5 19.4 3.9 3.8–5.0 4.3 0.5 1 4 2/2
Column Basitrich 14.7–19.3 17.2 1.2 2.8–4.2 3.2 0.3 22 22 2/2
Basitrich 8.7–17.1 14.2 1.6 1.4–2.4 2.0 0.1 26 21 2/2
Spirocyst 10.3–14.7 12.6 1.5 2.3–2.6 2.5 0.1 5 1 2/2
Acrorhagi Basitrich 12.2–25.3 16.6 2.7 1.7–2.6 2.1 0.2 25 23 2/2
Basitrich 7.6–14.9 11.8 1.4 1.4–2.1 1.7 0.1 23 0 1/2
Spirocyst 11.3–23.9 17.8 2.6 1.9–3.5 2.6 0.4 22 20 2/2
Holotrich 17.9–39.3 31.8 3.8 2.4–4.7 3.6 0.5 29 25 2/2
Holotrich 21.1–36.5 27.9 4.2 2.3–3.3 2.8 0.2 24 0 1/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 16.5–17.5 17.0 0.7 2.8–4.1 3.4 0.8 2 0 1/2
Filament Basitrich 13.1–33.7 17.3 3.9 1.9–3.0 2.3 0.3 15 7 2/2
Basitrich 9.2–18.5 14.1 2.1 1.2–2.3 2.0 0.2 3 20 2/2
Spirocyst 10.9–19.2 15.5 2.1 1.9–3.5 2.6 0.3 20 4 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 15.5–28.0 24.9 2.4 3.1–4.6 3.7 0.3 7 20 2/2
Holotrich 29.7–33.5 31.6 2.6 2.8–3.0 2.9 0.1 2 0 1/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 17.2–23.4 20.5 2.2 4.2–4.8 4.5 0.2 1 4 2/2
Bunodosoma cavernatum Tentacle Basitrich 10.7–29.5 21.0 4.7 1.6–3.4 2.1 0.4 21 22 2/2
Spirocyst 13.2–22.6 16.8 2.3 1.7–3.7 2.5 0.6 20 23 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 21.0–27.2 24.7 1.2 2.8–3.5 3.2 0.1 22 20 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 16.3–21.1 18.5 1.5 3.7–6.0 4.9 0.5 4 22 2/2
Column Basitrich 14.7–19.8 16.8 1.2 1.8–2.5 2.2 0.1 20 20 2/2
Basitrich 20.8–28.4 24.8 1.6 2.5–3.9 3.0 0.2 31 21 2/2
Acrorhagi Basitrich 17.2–28.8 22.8 3.5 2.1–3.5 2.7 0.4 21 20 2/2
Holotrich 26.6–45.1 35.0 3.7 3.1–5.8 4.0 0.5 22 20 2/2
Filament Basitrich 11.9–28.5 23.9 4.7 1.6–4.0 3.0 0.5 6 21 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 20.5–37.4 28.0 4.3 4.2–8.9 6.2 1.7 30 22 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 14.4–23.1 18.7 2.9 3.2–6.7 4.6 0.9 20 21 2/2
Isoaulactinia stelloides Tentacle Basitrich 14.1–23.6 18.5 2.8 1.9–2.8 2.4 0.2 21 21 2/2
Macrobasic p-mastigophore 16.0–25.6 22.0 1.6 5.1–9.2 7.3 0.9 23 22 2/2
Spirocyst 12.2–22.2 17.4 2.6 1.9–3.0 2.4 0.2 21 21 2/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 11.7–18.5 13.7 1.7 1.6–2.7 2.1 0.2 21 21 2/2
Basitrich 16.6–34.1 26.4 2.9 2.3–3.2 2.9 0.2 29 22 2/2
Macrobasic p-mastigophore 21.1–26.9 24.4 1.4 6.3–8.3 7.6 0.5 4 20 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 18.0–28.6 25.2 2.7 4.1–5.7 4.9 0.4 10 5 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 15.2–33.2 26.9 5.7 2.8–4.0 3.4 0.3 1 6 2/2
Long, curved basitrich 18.9–32.8 24.9 4.8 1.6–2.2 1.9 0.2 6 6 2/2
Column Basitrich 11.8–15.7 13.5 0.9 1.9–2.8 2.3 0.1 23 21 2/2
Macrobasic p-mastigophore 22.2–27.7 24.5 1.2 5.2–7.5 6.3 0.5 26 20 2/2
Long, curved basitrich 25.1–31.3 28.2 4.3 2.2–2.3 2.3 0.1 2 0 1/2
Marginal projection Basitrich 11.1–13.8 12.3 0.7 1.8–2.8 2.3 0.2 26 20 2/2
Macrobasic p-mastigophore 20.1–25.9 22.7 1.4 5.2–8.5 6.5 0.8 32 20 2/2
Filament Basitrich 10.8–15.5 13.4 1.1 1.6–2.2 1.9 0.1 24 20 2/2
Basitrich 17.6–31.8 22.2 3.4 1.7–3.1 2.3 0.3 20 21 2/2
Macrobasic p-mastigophore 23.3–29.3 26.0 1.4 5.9–8.1 7.1 0.4 20 20 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 17.6–32.3 25.9 3.3 3.9–6.0 4.7 0.4 15 23 2/2
Microbasic b-mastigophore 29.3–39.7 34.1 2.4 3.2–4.9 3.9 0.4 20 22 2/2
Long, curved basitrich 17.0–29.7 24.1 5.5 1.5–2.2 1.9 0.3 4 0 1/2
Lebrunia coralligens Tentacle Basitrich 12.3–33.5 26.2 4.8 1.7–2.6 2.2 0.2 20 24 2/2
Spirocyst 17.1–29.9 23.8 3.5 2.8–5.5 4.1 0.6 2 21 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 11.8–14.6 13.2 1.1 2.5–3.1 2.7 0.2 4 0 1/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 29.0–68.7 48.6 9.0 4.4–7.1 5.6 0.6 20 21 2/2
Pseudotentacle Basitrich 8.9–26.8 15.4 4.3 1.7–2.8 2.2 0.2 22 23 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 37.2–67.8 51.5 5.7 10.8–15.7 13.0 1.8 25 21 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 11.7–25.9 17.2 2.8 2.3–4.6 3.3 0.4 20 20 2/2
Actinopharynx Microbasic p-amastigophore 10.7–21.6 13.7 2.0 2.3–3.7 2.7 0.3 20 23 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 18.8–45.1 34.6 7.9 3.4–6.3 5.1 0.6 21 20 2/2
Column Basitrich 9.0–14.0 10.9 1.0 1.6–2.6 2.1 0.2 24 20 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 12.1–23.5 14.8 1.8 2.7–4.0 3.3 0.3 23 21 2/2
Filament Microbasic p-amastigophore 11.2–17.3 13.6 1.2 2.2–3.3 2.7 0.3 20 20 2/2
Microbasic p-amastigophore 29.1–46.5 37.1 4.0 4.4–6.2 5.4 0.4 20 10 2/2
Actinoporus elegans Tentacle Basitrich 15.8–20.8 17.4 2.2 2.4–3.0 2.7 0.2 4 0 1/1
Spirocyst 26.6–37.6 32.8 3.2 2.2–2.9 2.6 0.1 23 0 1/1
Actinopharynx Basitrich 25.6–32.5 27.9 1.7 3.5–4.8 4.2 0.3 21 0 1/1
Microbasic p-mastigophore 29.8–34.9 31.9 1.4 6.6–9.0 7.8 0.5 22 0 1/1
Column Basitrich 10.1–24.9 17.8 3.7 1.5–2.6 2.1 0.2 22 0 1/1
Filament Basitrich 16.1–24.5 21.3 2.2 2.1–3.1 2.6 0.2 20 0 1/1
Microbasic p-mastigophore 25.7–30.2 27.8 1.1 5.3–6.9 6.0 0.4 20 0 1/1
Calliactis tricolor Tentacle Basitrich 12.9–16.3 15.0 0.8 1.4–2.5 1.7 0.2 21 6 2/2
Spirocyst 16.9–29.1 22.9 3.1 3.0–4.9 3.9 0.6 0 21 1/2
Actinopharynx Basitrich 13.3–25.5 19.3 4.4 1.4–3.3 2.3 0.4 24 21 2/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 13.4–18.2 16.0 1.0 2.3–3.1 2.6 0.2 20 0 1/2
Column Basitrich 8.0–16.5 11.4 2.4 1.3–2.4 1.8 0.3 20 20 2/2
Filament Basitrich 13.7–26.2 19.5 4.1 1.9–3.0 2.3 0.2 20 21 2/2
Basitrich 9.2–12.7 10.7 0.8 1.4–1.8 1.7 0.1 0 22 1/2
Microbasic p-mastigophore 14.2–24.1 17.6 2.8 2.3–4.6 3.3 0.7 22 21 2/2
Acontia Basitrich 13.6–25.3 19.5 3.9 2.0–3.4 2.7 0.4 20 21 2/2

Natural history

Anemonia sargassensis inhabits shallow waters of the lagoon reef zone, often above Thalassia testudinum blades, but is also found under stones and coral gravel, between 0.5–2 m. It is often reported on floating Sargassum (Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952[4]). Asexual propagation by longitudinal fission is common (Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952[4]) and bifurcated tentacles can occur (Hargitt 1908[1], 1912[5], Pax 1924[2], Corrêa 1964[6], present study).

Distribution

Western Atlantic, from the northern coast of USA and Caribbean Sea, to the northern coast of Brazil (Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952[4], Varela 2002[7], Zamponi et al. 1998[8]).

Remarks

Of the 20 valid species of Anemonia, four species have been recorded in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea (Fautin 2013[9]): Anemonia sargassensis, Anemonia melanaster (Verrill, 1901), Anemonia depressa Duchassaing & Michelotti, 1860, and Anemonia elegans Verrill, 1901. The anatomy described for Anemonia sargassensis is conflicting mainly in the presence of directives, siphonoglyphs, and marginal projections (e.g. Hargitt 1908[1], 1912[5], Pax 1924[2], Field 1949[10], Carlgren and Hedgpeth 1952[4]). Just as in Field (1949)[10], Carlgren and Hedgpeth (1952)[4], and Corrêa (1964)[6], we did not find directives in our specimens but 5–6 siphonoglyphs were present. Although some authors suggest that Anemonia sargassensis and Anemonia melanaster are synonymous (Cairns et al. 1986[11], Ocaña and den Hartog 2002[12], Wirtz et al. 2003[13]), further studies are necessary to establish the current taxonomic status of both species. Differences between the other two species of the genus in the region, Anemonia depressa and Anemonia elegans, and Anemonia sargassensis are not clear based on the scarce information available and also require further revision.

Taxon Treatment

  • González-Muñoz, R; Simões, N; Tello-Musi, J; Rodríguez, E; 2013: Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) from coral reefs in the southern Gulf of Mexico ZooKeys, 341: 77-106. doi

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Hargitt C (1908) Notes on a few coelenterates of Woods Hole. Biological Bulletin 14: 95-120. doi: 10.2307/1535721
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pax F (1924) Actiniarien, Zoantharien und Ceriantharien von Curaçao. Kungliga Zoologisch Genootschap Natura Artis Magistra (Amsterdam) 23: 93-122.
  3. Carlgren O (1949) A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kunglia Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, series 4, 1: 1–121.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Carlgren O, Hedgpeth J (1952) Actiniaria, Zoantharia and Ceriantharia from shallow water in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Publications of the Institute of Marine Science, University of Texas, 2, 143–172.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Hargitt C (1912) The Anthozoa of the Woods Hole region. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 788(32): 221-254.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Corrêa D (1964) Corallimorpharia e Actiniaria do Atlântico Oeste Tropical. Universidade de São Paulo, Tese, Brasil.
  7. Varela C (2002) Nuevas consignaciones de Actiniarios (Anthozoa: Actiniaria) para aguas cubanas. Revista de Investigaciones Marinas 23: 233-234.
  8. Zamponi M, Belém M, Schlenz E, Acuña F (1998) Distribution and some ecological aspects of Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria from shallow waters of the South American Atlantic coasts. Physis 55: 31-45.
  9. Fautin D (2013) Hexacorallians of the World. http://geoportal.kgs.ku.edu/hexacoral/anemone2/index.cfm [accessed 25 May 2013]
  10. 10.0 10.1 Field L (1949) Sea Anemones and Corals of Beaufort, North Carolina. Duke University Press, Durham, 39 pp.
  11. Cairns S, den Hartog J, Arneson C (1986) Class Anthozoa (Corals, Anemones). In: Sterrer W Schoepfer-Sterrer C (Eds) Marine Fauna and Flora of Bermuda. John Wiley and Sons, New York: 164-194.
  12. Ocaña O, den Hartog J (2002) A catalogue of Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia from the Canary Islands and from Madeira. Arquipélago. Boletim da Universidade dos Açores. Ciencias Biológicas e Marinhas 19: 33-53.
  13. Wirtz P, Ocaña O, Molodtsova T (2003) Actiniaria and Ceriantharia of the Azores (Cnidaria Anthozoa). Helogoländer Marine Research 57: 114-117. doi: 10.1007/s10152-003-0146-2

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