(Reeves, Will K., Adler, Peter H., Grogan, William L. & Super, Paul E. 2004)

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Reeves, Will K., Adler, Peter H., Grogan, William L., Super, Paul E. (2004) Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Zootaxa 483 : 31 – 38, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-18, version 91879, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Reeves,_Will_K.,_Adler,_Peter_H.,_Grogan,_William_L._%26_Super,_Paul_E._2004)&oldid=91879 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Reeves2004Zootaxa483,
author = {Reeves, Will K. AND Adler, Peter H. AND Grogan, William L. AND Super, Paul E.},
journal = {Zootaxa},
title = {Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA},
year = {2004},
volume = {483},
issue = {},
pages = {31 -- 38},
doi = {TODO},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-18, version 91879, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Reeves,_Will_K.,_Adler,_Peter_H.,_Grogan,_William_L._%26_Super,_Paul_E._2004)&oldid=91879 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA
A1 - Reeves, Will K.
A1 - Adler, Peter H.
A1 - Grogan, William L.
A1 - Super, Paul E.
Y1 - 2004
JF - Zootaxa
JA -
VL - 483
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/TODO
SP - 31
EP - 38
PB -
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-18, version 91879, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Reeves,_Will_K.,_Adler,_Peter_H.,_Grogan,_William_L._%26_Super,_Paul_E._2004)&oldid=91879 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

M3 - doi:TODO

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Reeves2004Zootaxa483">{{Citation
| author = Reeves, Will K., Adler, Peter H., Grogan, William L., Super, Paul E.
| title = Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA
| journal = Zootaxa
| year = 2004
| volume = 483
| issue =
| pages = 31 -- 38
| pmid =
| publisher =
| doi = TODO
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-02-28

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-04-18, version 91879, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Reeves,_Will_K.,_Adler,_Peter_H.,_Grogan,_William_L._%26_Super,_Paul_E._2004)&oldid=91879 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.</ref>


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Chiroptera
Familia: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Plecotus

Name

Plecotus rafinesquii Lesson (Ellis 1993)Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Description

Atylotus duplex (Walker) Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 9 May 2002, on grass, adult male, coll. I. Stocks. Atylotus species are rarely collected, and the bionomics of the three species from Tennessee are poorly known. Goodwin et al. (1985) presented only one record of A. duplex from Tennessee.

Description

Collection: North Carolina, Swain Co., Oconaluftee /Ravensford, 9–16 April 2001, Malaise trap, (Weigmann 2001). Chrysops carbonarius was collected only at the lowest elevations of the Park in open fields. Chrysops cincticornis (Walker) Collection: North Carolina, Swain Co., Oconaluftee /Ravensford, 9–16 April 2001, Malaise trap, (Weigmann 2001). Chrysops cincticornis was collected at the lowest elevations of the Park in open fields. Chrysops cuclux Whitney Collection: North Carolina, Swain Co., Payne Branch, 16 May 2001, biting human. A single female of C. cuclux bit W. Reeves while he was standing in a forested bog near Payne Branch. Chrysops geminatus Wiedemann Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co., Payne Branch near Lake Fontana, 8 July 2001, biting human; Tennessee, Blount Co., Houston Chambers Pond, Cades Cove, 16 July 1989, coll. C. Parker; Sevier Co., Roaring Fork Motor Trail, 16 July 2001, circling human head; Twin Creeks, 5–18 July 2000, Malaise trap, coll. I. Stocks. Chrysops geminatus was one of the most frequently collected deer flies in the Park. This fly bites humans and readily enters slow­moving or parked vehicles. Approximately 25 % of the flies captured near Payne Branch were infected with a Trypanosoma sp. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported C. geminatus from Blount and Sevier Counties. Chrysops impunctus Krober Collection: North Carolina, Swain Co., Payne Branch, near Lake Fontana, 8 July 2001, biting human. Chrysops impunctus was an annoying biter of humans in the forested bogs and woodlands near Payne Branch. Adult flies captured near Payne Branch were infected with a gregarine, Cometoides pechumani Anderson & Magnarelli.

Description

Collections: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 17 May 1939, coll. A. Stupka. A single specimen of C. niger is in the Park museum. Further collections in Cades Cove have yet to produce material. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported C. niger from Blount and Sevier Counties. Chrysops univittatus Macquart Collections: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Myhr Cave entrance, 2 August 2000, biting human.

Description

Collections: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 2–16 July 2001, Malaise trap, R. Hightower & J. Burbank. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported C. upsilon from western Tennessee; however, C. upsilon and C. univittatus Macquart are poorly defined and might represent a single species or species complex. Chrysops vittatus Wiedemann Collections: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Elkmont, 8 June 1973, coll. Hobson. Only one specimen exists in the Park museum, but Goodwin et al. (1985) reported C. vittatus throughout Tennessee, including Blount and Sevier Counties. Chrysops vittatus is a common species in the eastern US. Goniops chrysocoma (Osten Sacken) Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Appalachian Trail, 27 July 1997, adult, coll. Troud Lorsen; Cataloochee (1382 meters, 35.5858 °N, 83.0813 °W), 15 May– 8 June 2001, pitfall trapped larva, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen; Swain Co., Appalachian Trail, 3 July 1997, adult, coll. Troud Lorsen; Tennessee, Blount Co., Bull Sink, 11 June 2002, teneral adult male; Cocke Co., Albright Grove (1034 meters, 35.7331 °N, 83.2806 °W), 9– 22 May 2001, larvae, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen; Sevier Co., Bullhead Trail, 2 August 1997, adult, coll. Troud Lorsen; Twin Creeks, 5–21 June 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I. Stocks & L. (C)ollins (sic); Goshen Prong, 9–27 April 2000, larvae, Parker, Stocks, & Petersen. Larvae and adults of G. chrysocoma were frequently collected in deciduous woodlands. Females of G. chrysocoma do not feed on blood and lay only one batch of eggs. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported this species from Blount, Knox, and Sevier Counties. The collections from Cocke County are a new record. Hybomitra cincta (Fabricius) Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 4 July 2002, in truck, coll. M.H. Reeves, 22 July 2002, biting elk; Swain Co., Crestmont, date unknown, adult, coll. unknown; Tennessee, Blount Co., Tremont Institute, 11 July 2001, adult, coll. P. Super et al.; Sevier Co., Elkmont, date unknown, adult.

Description

Collection: North Carolina, Payne Branch, 16 May 2001, biting human; Andrews Bald, 6 June– 3 August 2001, Malaise traps, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen. Hybomitra difficilis attacks humans in woodlands rather than in open habitats (Drees et al. 1980). Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Macquart) Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Beech Gap Schoolhouse (823 meters, 35.6249 °N, 83.1165 °W), 4 July 2002, dead in window; Swain Co., Oconaluftee/Ravensford, 19–26 April 2001, Malaise trap, (Wiegmann 2001); 35.6667 o N, 83.4833 o W, 24–27 May 1999, Malaise trap, coll. L.W. Quate; Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 25 May 2001, adults; Sevier Co., Twin Creeks, 24 April– 8 May 2000, Malaise trap, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen, 5–21 June 2001, coll. I. Stocks & L. (C)ollins (sic). Goodwin et al. (1985) reported H. lasiophthalma from Blount and Sevier Counties and noted that it is the horse fly with the earliest flight season. Hybomitra lasiophthalma is a pest of cattle and probably feeds on deer and elk in Cataloochee. Hybomitra microcephala (Osten­Sacken) Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co., Taywa Creek, 23 July 1986, adult, coll. Parker; Tennessee, Sevier Co., Brushy Mountain, 5–21 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen. Goodwin et al. (1985) did not report H. microcephala from Tennessee but suggested that this species would eventually be discovered in the state. Hybomitra sodalis (Williston) Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co., Andrews Bald, 3–17 July 1999, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe; Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 9 May 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported H. sodalis exclusively from the upland areas of eastern Tennessee, including Blount County and noted that it is a pest of cattle. Hybomitra typhus (Whitney) Collection: Swain Co., Oconaluftee/Ravensford, 19–26 April 2001, Malaise trap, (Weigmann 2001). Hybomitra typhus appears to have a northern distribution and the Park could represent the southern limit for this species (Goodwin et al. 1985). Leucotabanus annulatus (Say) Collection: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Park Headquarters, date unknown, coll. D. DeFoe. This species bites humans and cattle at dusk and is crepuscular or nocturnal in activity (Drees et al. 1980). Goodwin et al. (1985) reported L. annulatus from Blount and Sevier Counties. Stonemyia rasa (Loew) Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co., Siler Bald, 22 July 1980, coll. Friedrich; Tennessee, Sevier Co., Clingman’s Dome, 30 July (year unlisted), (Goodwin et al. 1985). This species is restricted to high elevations in the Park (Goodwin et al. 1985). Adults of Stonemyia are not known to feed on blood but can be found on flowers. Stonemyia tranquilla (Osten­Sacken) Collections: North Carolina, Swain Co. Andrews Bald, 3–17 July 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe; Indian Gap, 22 July 1990, coll. D. DeFoe; Tennessee, Clingman’s Dome, 20 July (year unlisted), (Goodwin et al. 1985). Adults of S. tranquilla congregate on flowers, especially those of Spiraea species (Drees et al. 1980). Goodwin et al. (1985) reported this species from high elevations in the Park. Tabanus americanus Forster Collections: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 16–27 August 2001, Lingren funnel, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen; Whiteoak Sinks, (543 meters, 35.6350 °N, 83.7474 ° W), date unknown, coll. A. Stupka.

Description

Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 14 July 1997, coll. Trod Larsen. Tabanus aranti is one of the largest tabanids in the Park and probably feeds on large mammals. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. aranti from Blount County. Tabanus atratus (Fabricius) Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 7 August 2001, coll. P. Super. Tabanus atratus is one of the largest tabanids in North America. It usually feeds on large mammals but also feeds on reptiles (Barnard & Durden 2000). Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. atratus from Blount County. Tabanus calens Linnaeus Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 7 August 2001, coll. P. Super et al., 4 August 2003, biting llama. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. calens from Blount, Cocke, and Sevier Counties. This species is among the largest tabanids in the Nearctic Region. Tabanus fuscicostatus Hine Collection: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 4 July 2002, in truck. Tabanus fuscicostatus is a vector of Anaplasma species to cattle and equine infectious anemia virus to horses (Wilson & Meyer 1966; Hawkins et al. 1976). The females might transmit similar bacteria to deer, horses, or elk in the Park. Tabanus lineola (Fabricius) Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 30 July– 16 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe. Wilson (1967) demonstrated that females of T. lineola when fed on human blood can complete their ovarian cycle. Tabanus lineola will feed on reptiles (Barnard & Durden 2000). Couvillion et al. (1984) incriminated T. lineola as the vector of the cervid filarial worm Elaeophora schneideri Wehr & Dikmans in deer in South Carolina. Tabanus lineola is widely distributed in Tennessee, including Blount and Cocke Counties (Goodwin et al. 1985). Tabanus melanocercus Wiedemann Collection: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Park Headquarters, date unknown, coll. D. DeFoe. Tabanus melanocercus is widespread in Tennessee including Blount and Sevier Counties (Goodwin et al. 1985). Tabanus mixis Philip Collection: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Foothills Parkway, date unknown, coll. D. DeFoe. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. mixis from Blount County and noted that it might be crepuscular. Burger (1995 b) considers T. mixis a distinct species. Tabanus mularis Stone Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 30 July– 16 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe. Tabanus mularis usually is not collected in large numbers (Goodwin et al. 1985). Tabanus quinquevittatus Wiedemann Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 30 July– 16 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. quinquevittatus from Blount County and noted that it is active in mid­ to late summer. Tabanus sackeni Fairchild Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Cove Creek Gap, 17 August 2001, in truck; Cataloochee, 2–20 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen; Swain Co., Kephart Prong Trailhead (854 meters, 35.5858 °N, 83.3583 °W), 24 July 2000, coll. B. Sullivan; Oconaluftee/Ravensford, 16 August– 10 October 2001, Malaise trap, coll. D. Jones & R. Harrington; Twentymile Creek ranger station, 15 August 2002, in truck; Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 22 July 1999, light trap, coll. J. Cooper; Tremont Institute, 24 July 2001, coll. P. Super; Cocke Co., Snakeden Ridge, 14 August– 10 September 2001, Malaise trap, coll. Parker, Stocks, & Petersen; Sevier Co., W. tributary of Porters Creek, 27 July 1999, light trap, coll. J. Cooper; Brushy Mountain, 21 July– 5 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe; Goshen Prong, 30 July– 13 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks & J. Lowe; Twin Creeks, 13–27 August 2001, Malaise trap, coll. I.C. Stocks. Tabanus sackeni was one of the most frequently collected tabanids in Malaise traps in the Park. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. sackeni from Blount and Cocke Counties. Tabanus sparus Whitney Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 16 August 1989, coll. C. Parker. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported this species from Blount County and noted that it attacks humans and cattle. Tabanus sulcifrons Macquart complex Collections: North Carolina, Haywood Co., Beech Gap Schoolhouse, 3 May 2002, dead in window; Blount Co., Tremont Institute, 2001, dead in light fixture, coll. P. Super; 7 September 2001, adults, coll. P. Super; Rich Mountain Trail, 25 August 1999, 9 September 1999, adults on truck; Cades Cove, 7 August 2001, coll. P. Super et al. Tabanus sulcifrons is a species complex, and the true diversity of species in the Park is unknown. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported this complex from Blount, Cocke, and Sevier Counties. Tabanus superjumentarius Whitney Collection: Tennessee, Sevier Co., Park Headquarters, dead, unknown date, coll. D. DeFoe. Goodwin et al. (1985) reported T. superjumentarius from Blount and Sevier Counties and noted that it is common in the eastern mountains. Tabanus turbidus Wiedemann Collection: Tennessee, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 2001, coll. P. Super et al. Goodwin et al. (1985) presented a disjunct distribution for this species in Tennessee, although specimens were reported from Blount and Cocke Counties. This species is crepuscular.

Taxon Treatment

  • Reeves, Will K.; Adler, Peter H.; Grogan, William L.; Super, Paul E.; 2004: Hematophagous and Parasitic Diptera (Insecta) in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, Zootaxa 483: 31-38. doi
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