(Pogue, Michael G. 2005)

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Pogue, Michael G. (2005) The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Zootaxa 1032 : 9 – 21, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-26, version 104629, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Pogue,_Michael_G._2005)&oldid=104629 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Pogue2005Zootaxa1032,
author = {Pogue, Michael G.},
journal = {Zootaxa},
title = {The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park},
year = {2005},
volume = {1032},
issue = {},
pages = {9 -- 21},
doi = {TODO},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-26, version 104629, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Pogue,_Michael_G._2005)&oldid=104629 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park
A1 - Pogue, Michael G.
Y1 - 2005
JF - Zootaxa
JA -
VL - 1032
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/TODO
SP - 9
EP - 21
PB -
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-26, version 104629, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Pogue,_Michael_G._2005)&oldid=104629 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

M3 - doi:TODO

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Pogue2005Zootaxa1032">{{Citation
| author = Pogue, Michael G.
| title = The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park
| journal = Zootaxa
| year = 2005
| volume = 1032
| issue =
| pages = 9 -- 21
| pmid =
| publisher =
| doi = TODO
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-02-28

}} Versioned wiki page: 2016-11-26, version 104629, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Pogue,_Michael_G._2005)&oldid=104629 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.</ref>


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Lepidoptera
Familia: Noctuidae

Name

Rachiplusia Pogue, Michael G., 2005Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Description

Identification: Forewing length 13.0–20.0 mm. Rachiplusia ou has a gray forewing with a pale oblique subterminal band that extends from the costa to the posterior margin. There is a small dark zigzag mark below the apex in the terminal portion of the forewing. The metallic silver spot consists of a loop with a small dot at its apex; the dot may or may not be separate from the loop. This species could be confused with T. ni, but all of the tibiae in R. ou are spined, especially the hind tibia; in contrast, there are no tibial spines in T. ni. Flight period: Can be found in all months of the year in the southern part of its range (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Collection localities: This species is likely to occur in the Park, but has not yet been recorded. General distribution: This is a widespread species in North America. In Canada it ranges from Nova Scotia to Manitoba; in the United States from New York to Florida, across Texas and the Great Plains to Montana, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and California; and R. ou is also found in Bermuda and the Dominican Republic; and Mexico south through Central America, Venezuela, and the Andes to Ecuador (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Larval hosts: Probably a general feeder on herbaceous plants. Hosts include Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Chenopodiaceae), cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., Solanaceae), clover (Trifolium sp., Fabaceae), mint (Mentha sp., Lamiaceae), common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., Poaceae), and nasturtium (Tropaeolum sp., Tropaeolaceae) (Eichlin and Cunningham 1978). 8. Allagrapha aerea (Hübner) Unspotted Looper Moth (Fig. 8, Map 6) Identification: Forewing length 15.0–19.0 mm. Allagrapha aerea lacks a silvery spot in the forewing. The forewing ground color is dark rufous brown, a subterminal band of dark brown runs diagonally from the apex to the posterior margin. This species can be confused with Diachrysia aereoides (Grote), but can be separated by several differences. In A. aerea the forewing pattern is not well defined, whereas in D. aereoides the forewing pattern consists of distinct lines, a spot with its apex attached to vein M in the middle of the discal cell, and a reniform spot, both outlined in black. The underside of the thorax is pale yellow to cream in A. aerea and pale orange in D. aereoides. The foretibia is gray to grayish brown; quite distinct from the thorax color in A. aerea, in D. aereoides the foretibia and thorax are concolorous. Flight period:End of May to early June and end of July to mid October, two broods seem to be evident in GSMNP, with the first brood occurring from the end of May to mid June and a second from the end of July through mid October. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Cataloochee, Purchase Knob; Swain Co., Big Cove Road, Smokemont Forney Creek. Tennessee: Cocke Co., Cosby house. (13 specimens) MAP 6. Collecting localities of Allagrapha aerea. Elevation range:2040–4934 ft. (622–1504 m) General distribution: Widely distributed in eastern North America from southern Ontario to the panhandle of Florida and west to western Nebraska. Larval hosts: This species is probably a general feeder on herbaceous plants with larvae recorded from nettle (Urtica sp., Urticaceae), aster (Aster umbellatus Mill., Asteraceae), and soybeans (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). 9. Diachrysia aereoides (Grote) Dark­spotted Looper Moth (Fig. 9, Map 7) Identification: Forewing length 17.0–18.0 mm. Diachrysia aereoides lacks a silvery spot on the forewing. The forewing ground color is rufous with a distinct pattern of lines and spots. The hindwing is gray with a tan fringe. This species may be confused with A. aerea; the differences between the two are described above. Flight period: Early June to end of July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Flat Creek Trail on Balsam Mountain Road, Purchase Knob; Swain Co., 5.6 mi SW of Jct. 441 and Clingman’s Dome Road, Noland Divide Trail. Tennessee: Cocke Co., 5.1 mi E on Rt. 32 from Cosby. (4 specimens) MAP 7. Collecting localities of Diachrysia aereoides. Elevation range:2200–5950 ft. (671–1814 m) General distribution: This species has a more northern, transcontinental, distribution from Newfoundland west to northern California. It reaches its southern most distribution in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Larval hosts: Most host records are herbaceous plants in Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Rosaceae, but some woody plants also are recorded; it is probably a general feeder (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). 10. Diachrysia balluca Geyer (Fig. 10, Map 8) Identification: Forewing length 20.0–25.0 mm. Diachrysia balluca is distinct with a pale gray forewing ground color with large patches of metallic green from below the discal cell to beyond the postmedial line and from the reniform spot to the outer margin. The hindwing is gray. The underside of the thorax is white with a brownish­yellow and brown prothorax. This species cannot be confused with any other in the Park. It is the largest plusiine in North America. Flight period:End of July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Purchase Knob. (3 specimens) MAP 8. Collecting localities of Diachrysia balluca. Elevation range:4838–4925 ft. (1475–1501) General distribution: This species occurs in northeastern North America from Nova Scotia west to Manitoba and south to western North Carolina. Great Smoky Mountains National Park is the southern limits of this species. The only other records in the South are from the type locality of Georgia (described in 1832) and Kimble’s (1965) record from Liberty County in northwestern Florida, possibly representing strays. Larval hosts:Diachrysia balluca feeds on mostly woody plants and including common hop (Humulus lupulus L., Cannabaceae), quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx., Salicaceae), Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd., Urticaceae), and raspberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae). 11. Polychrysia morigera (Hy. Edwards) (Fig. 11, Map 9) Identification: Forewing length 15.0–16.0 mm. The foot­shaped silvery spot in the forewing consists of a thin white line that extends to the postmedial line. The labial palpus is large and sickle­shaped, extending well above the head. These two characters separate Polychrysia morigera from all other plusiines in the Park. Forewing ground color is dark brown with an irregularly shaped black spot in the subterminal area just below the apex. Hindwing is gray to dark gray with a white fringe that is gray basally. Flight period: Early June (1 specimen) and the end of July (3 specimens). Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Purchase Knob at lower creek; Swain Co., 1.2 mi NE of Clingman’s Dome parking lot, Noland Divide Trail; 5.6 mi SW of Jct. 441 and Clingman’s Dome Road, Noland Divide Trail. (4 specimens) MAP 9. Collecting localities of Polychrysia morigera. Elevation range:4000–6000 ft. (1219–1829 m) General distribution: This species is the rarest of the North American plusiines (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). It has a clumped distribution. In the East, it is found in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio River Valleys from Pennsylvania to Tennessee; in the Rocky Mountains it is found from Montana to Colorado; and on the West Coast it occurs from Oregon to northern California. Larval hosts: The only reported host is Columbian larkspur (Delphinium trolliifolium Gray, Ranunculaceae) (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Covell and Medley (1986) reported adults trapped in the labellum of Kentucky lady’s slippers (Cypripedium kentuckiense Reed, Orchidaceae) in Tennessee. 12. Pseudeva purpurigera (Walker) Straight­lined Looper Moth (Fig. 12, Map 10) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–16.0 mm. Pseudeva purpurigera lacks a silvery spot on the forewing. Forewing ground color is pale rufous with metallic yellow patches below discal cell and proximal to the postmedial line and in the subterminal area. A pair of parallel postmedial lines with brown proximally and white distally are distinct and angulate from the apex to the posterior margin. There is a small black dot adjacent to the postmedial line at 3 / 4 length from costa on well­marked specimens. These characters distinguish P. purpurigera from other plusiine species in the Park. Hindwing is pale with a thin median line and darker marginal band. Flight period: Early July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Swain Co., Big Cove Road. (1 specimen) Elevation range:2120 ft. (646 m) General distribution: This species has a wide distribution and is most common in southern Canada and the northeastern U.S. It ranges from Newfoundland south to western North Carolina, west to Alberta, south to Colorado, New Mexico, and east­central Arizona. It is absent from the Great Plains states west of Illinois. Larval hosts: Early and tall meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum L. and T. polygamum Muhl.Ranunculaceae) (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). MAP 10. Collecting localities of Pseudeva purpurigera. 13. Chrysanympha formosa (Grote)Formosa Looper Moth (Fig. 13, Map 11) Identification: Forewing length 15.0–17.0 mm. Chrysanympha formosa cannot be confused with any other plusiine in the Park. The basal area adjacent to the posterior margin is gray and dorsal to this is a large arching white patch streaked with gray. The subterminal area consists of a proximal white band, gray band, and black line. Hindwing is gray with a white fringe spotted with gray. The outer margin of the forewing, from apex to tornus, is more rounded than for other plusiine species. Flight period: Early June to mid August. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Purchase Knob; Swain Co., Kephart Prong trail. Tennessee: Blount Co., Cades Cove, Primitive Baptist Church; Sevier Co., Elkmont. (6 specimens) MAP 11. Collecting localities of Chrysanympha formosa. Elevation range:1800–4924 ft. (549–1501 m) General distribution: This species occurs from Newfoundland west to Manitoba and south to the mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee. Larval hosts:Kearfott (1904) lists dwarf huckleberry (Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) T. & G.) and blueberry (Vaccinium sp.), both in the Ericaceae, as larval hosts. 14. Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides (Guenée) Pink­patched Looper Moth (Fig. 14, Map 12) Identification: Forewing length 16.0­18.0 mm. Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides has two silvery spots that consist of a small V­shaped loop and a separate oval spot. Forewing ground color is gray with a pink basal patch and dark brown streak extending from postmedial line to just below apex. This is a distinct species that cannot be confused with any other plusiine in the Park. Hindwing is gray with a white fringe and small gray dots basally. Flight period: June to early August and mid October. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Mt. Sterling Trail; Swain Co., Big Cove Road, 3.3 mi NE of Clingman’s Dome parking lot on Forked Ridge Trail, Kephart Prong Trail, Oconaluftee staff housing, 0.1 mi NE Twentymile Ranger Station. Tennessee: Sevier Co., 4 mi S of Rt. 321 end of Greenbrier Loop Road, 6 mi S of Sugarlands Visitor Center on Hwy. 441. (9 specimens) MAP 12. Collecting localities of Eosphoropteryx thyatyroides. Elevation range:1508–5780 ft. (460–1762 m) General distribution: In the northeast, this species occurs from Nova Scotia and northern Ontario south to Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, and along the Appalachians from Maine to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina. In the northwest, it occurs from central Alberta and southern British Columbia, south in the Cascades to southern Oregon, and in the Rockies to northern Idaho (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Larval hosts: This species feeds on early and tall meadow rue (Thalictrum dioicum L. and T. polygamum Muhl., Ranunculaceae), the same hosts as P. purpurigera (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). 15. Autographa precationis (Guenée) Common Looper Moth (Fig. 15, Map 13) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–18.0 mm. Autographa precationis usually has two silvery spots on the forewing that consist of a loop and a spot, which can be either contiguous or separate. Forewing ground color is brown, with a shiny brassy area that surrounds the silvery spots and extends to the tornal area, and a large dark triangular patch in the terminal area from the apex to middle of outer margin. Autographa precationis may be confused with P. includens, but the shiny brassy brown areas are more extensive in P. includens, the silvery spots are separate, and there is a small dark spot on the fringe in the middle of the outer margin. Autographa precationis has a less extensive and not as shiny brassy brown area, the silvery spots are usually contiguous, but in some specimens they are separate, and there is no dark spot on the fringe in the forewing. Flight period: June to October. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Mt. Sterling Trail; Purchase Knob (forest and field); Swain Co., Big Cove Road; 5 mi N of Clingman’s Dome; Mt. Buckley. Tennessee: Blount Co., Cades Cove house; Gregory Bald; Cocke Co., Foothills Parkway; Sevier Co., Campsite # 27 on Jakes Creek Trail, Elkmont; Park Headquarters. (29 specimens). MAP 13. Collecting localities of Autographa precationis. Elevation range:1300–6560 ft. (396–2000 m) General distribution: This is a common species occurring throughout eastern North America as far north as central Quebec and Nova Scotia, south to northern Mississippi and northern Georgia. Westward it occurs in the plains from southern Manitoba to Kansas, with specimens known from western Kansas and central Wyoming. Larval hosts: This is a polyphagous species that feeds on a wide variety of herbaceous plants in the following families: Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Plantaginaceae, and Verbenaceae. Occasionally it is a pest of garden plants (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). 16. Autographa ampla (Walker) Large Looper Moth (Fig. 16, Map 14) Identification: Forewing length 18.0–21.0 mm. Autographa ampla is a distinct species that has a small, narrow, loop­shaped silvery spot. Forewing ground color is brown with a large dark brown contrasting patch below the silvery spot along the posterior margin and a black outline of scales forming the reniform spot. Flight period: June to mid July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Purchase Knob; Swain Co., 0.5 km from mouth of Chambers Creek. Tennessee: Sevier Co., Elkmont, 7 mi S of Sugarlands Visitor Center. (5 specimens) MAP 14. Collecting localities of Autographa ampla. Elevation range:1990–4800 ft. (607–1463 m) General distribution: This is a boreal species that ranges from Newfoundland across Canada to British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. In the eastern United States, it occurs from Maine to eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina; and in the west, it occurs in the Rockies from Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming to Arizona, and along the west coast from Washington to northern California. Larval hosts: Larvae feed on a wide variety of deciduous shrubs and small trees including alder (Alnus sp., Betulaceae) and Birch (Betula sp., Betulaceae), willow (Salix sp., Salicaceae), balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L., Salicaceae), quaking aspen (P. tremuloides Michx., Salicaceae), cherry (Prunus sp., Rosaceae), serviceberry (Amelanchier alinifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. Ex M. Roemer, Rosaceae), and with­rod (Viburnum nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torr. & Gray, Caprifoliaceae) (Eichlin and Cunningham 1978). 17. Megalographa biloba (Stephens) Bilobed Looper Moth (Fig. 17, Map 15) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–19.0 mm. Megalographa biloba is a distinct species with a large bilobed silver spot surrounded by a patch of brassy brown. Forewing is brown, with a silvery, comma­shaped reniform spot, a small black dot dorsal to it, and a narrow terminal line along outer margin with a narrow brown patch at middle. Hindwing is gray to brown with a slightly darker marginal band. Flight period: Late May to July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Purchase Knob; Swain Co., Mt. Buckley. Tennessee: Blount Co., Gregory Bald trail N of campsite # 13. (4 specimens) MAP 15. Collecting localities of Megalographa biloba. Elevation range:4690–6540 ft. (1512–1993 m) General distribution: This is a widespread, highly migratory species that occurs throughout southern Canada, except western Canada, and throughout most of the U.S. It occurs throughout the rest of the New World except extreme southern South America. It has been collected in Hawaii and has migrated to Great Britain (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Larval hosts: This is a polyphagous species that feeds on a wide variety of herbaceous plants. Hosts include alfalfa, banana, barley, beans, cabbage, clover, delphinium, Ephedra sp. (Ephedraceae), geranium, gladiolas, lettuce, Mimulus cardinalis Dougl. ex Benth. (Scrophulariaceae), Phacelia sp. (Hydrophyllaceae), Salvia leucophylla Greene, Soleirolia soleirolii (Req.) Dandy (Urticaceae), Stachys ajugoides Benth. (Lamiaceae), and tobacco. 18. Syngrapha alias (Ottolengui) (Fig. 18, Map 16) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–16.0 mm. Syngrapha alias has a silvery spot with two lobes that project toward the posterior margin. Forewing ground color is dark gray with a black area immediately surrounding the silvery spot, and fringe is white with black spots at end of wing veins giving a checked appearance. Hindwing is dark brown with a darker marginal band and white fringe with dark spots. Flight period: Late July. Collected localities: North Carolina: Swain Co., 1.2 mi NE Clingman’s Dome parking lot on Noland Divide Trail, 3.3 mi NE Clingman’s Dome parking lot on Fork Ridge Trail, 5.6 mi SW of Jct. 441 & Clingman’s Dome Road. Tennessee: Sevier Co., 1.3 mi W of Jct. 441 & Clingman’s Dome Road on Road Prong Trail. (8 specimens). MAP 16. Collecting localities of Syngrapha alias. Elevation range:5260–6000 ft. (1603–1829 m) General distribution: This species is fairly widespread across North America from Newfoundland and northern Quebec to Alaska; in the east, from Maine to New Jersey; in the Appalachians, from eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina; in the Mid­West, from Michigan and Minnesota; in the west from Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado, New Mexico; and on the West Coast, from Washington to northern California. Larval hosts: This is a Pinaceae feeder that seems to prefer white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.); other hosts include black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B. S. P.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), Engelman spruce (Picea englemannii Parry.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.). Other minor hosts include Pacific silver fir (A. amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud) Dougl. ex Forbes), jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), grand fir (A. grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch), western white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.), western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don, Cupressaceae). These hosts are arranged by number of larvae collected on each (Prentice 1962). 19. Syngrapha rectangula (Kirby) Salt­and­pepper Looper Moth (Fig. 19, Map 17) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–17.0 mm. Syngrapha rectangula has a similar shaped silvery spot to S. alias, but the spot is usually more robust and somewhat variable in shape and is contiguous with the large silvery basal area of the forewing. The middle of the forewing is black and the terminal third is banded white and gray with a black zig­zag line from apex to about 1 / 3 wing width. The fringe is white with black spots at ends of the wing veins as in S. alias. Hindwing is gray with a dark marginal band and fringe white with gray dots. Flight period:End of June to August. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co, Purchase Knob; Swain Co., Beetree Ridge. Tennessee: Sevier Co., Jake’s Creek Trail nr. Campsite # 27; 5 mi S of Sugarlands Visitor Center at Chimney’s Picnic Area. (5 specimens) MAP 17. Collecting localities of Syngrapha rectangula. Elevation range:2720–4934 ft. (829–1504 m) General distribution: This species has a disjunct distribution in North America. In the north it ranges from Newfoundland, central Quebec, and northern Ontario to Manitoba, and south to northern Pennsylvania, southern Michigan, and northern Wisconsin. It is found in the Appalachians from southwestern Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and western North Carolina. In the West, it ranges from northern British Columbia, northern Idaho, western Montana, and south to southern Oregon. Larval hosts: This is another Pinaceae feeder, but prefers balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) P. Mill) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.); other hosts include white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Pacific Silver fir (A. amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud) Dougl. ex Forbes), grand fir (A. grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B. S. P.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.), tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch), and subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.). These hosts are arranged by number of larvae collected on each host (Prentice 1962). 20. Anagrapha falcifera (Kirby) Celery Looper (Fig. 20, Map 18) Identification: Forewing length 14.0–18.0 mm. Anagrapha falcifera is a distinct species with a single silvery spot that forms a solid loop. Forewing ground color is gray with a large patch of brown below silvery spot. Hindwing is gray with darker marginal band. Flight period:End of April; early June; end of July to early August; and end of September. There are three broods in the south (Lafontaine and Poole 1991) and this appears so in GSMNP, with a spring, summer, and early fall brood. Collected localities: North Carolina: Haywood Co., Mt. Sterling Trail, Purchase Knob; Swain Co., Big Cove Road. Tennessee: Blount Co., Hyatt Lane; Sevier Co., Park Headquarters. (12 specimens) MAP 18. Collecting localities of Anagrapha falcifera. Elevation range:1480–4925 ft. (451–1501 m) General distribution: This is one of the most common and widespread plusiines. It occurs across Canada from Newfoundland and northern Quebec to British Columbia, and in the U.S. from Maine to northern California and south to Texas and Arizona (Lafontaine and Poole 1991). Larval hosts: This species is found on a wide variety of herbaceous plants and very rarely on shrubs. Some of the more important hosts include beet, celery, lettuce, cabbage, corn, carrot, and blueberry (Eichlin and Cunningham 1978).

Taxon Treatment

  • Pogue, Michael G.; 2005: The Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Zootaxa 1032: 9-21. doi
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