(Maddison, Wayne P. 2009)
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- Cocalodes Maddison, Wayne P., 2009, Zootaxa 2021: 2-3.
Wanless (1985) later preferred the hypothesis that Holcolaetis and Sonoita formed a clade with the spartaeines to the exclusion of Cocalodes. The placement of Cocalodes is therefore unresolved. Wunderlich (2004) synonymized the Spartaeinae with the Cocalodinae, choosing Simon's family-group name Cocalodeae because of priority over Wanless's name Spartaeinae. I reject this synonymy primarily because Cocalodes can be excluded from the Spartaeinae in Wanless's strict sense (1984) because it lacks two spartaeine synapomorphies, a tegular furrow and loss of the median apophysis. Even if these cocalodines and the spartaeines were found to be sister groups, we could still retain them as separate, as I do here. Wunderlich's broad sense of Cocalodinae, which includes the Baltic Amber salticids, is united as far as we know only by plesiomorphic character states (presence of conductor and median apophysis, many retromarginal cheliceral teeth, large posterior median eyes). Here I take a much more restricted concept of the Cocalodinae, to include only the five genera discussed below. The Baltic Amber salticids, other than the hisponines, are therefore Salticidae incertae sedis. I will not here attempt to resolve the placement of cocalodines in the phylogeny of the Salticidae, as I have found no morphological synapomorphies that link it with particular subgroups of salticids. Some of the cocalodines I describe here resemble spartaeines closely in habitus, but this observation is insufficiently precise to provide evidence for relationship. However, the three new genera described here are provisionally placed within the Cocalodinae along with Cocalodes and Allococalodes. This group has one proposed synapomorphy, the internal sclerotized spheres of the epigynum first reported by Wanless in Cocalodes. These are, however, also present in at least a few salticoids (see e.g., Galiano 1963, 1970: Tullgrenella morenensis (Tullgren) and Chira gounellei (Simon)). These spheres are visible clearly in the new species Yamangalea frewana, Tabuina varirata, Tabuina baiteta, Tabuina rufa, and Cucudeta zabkai (Figs 30, 43, 50, 61, 78; see arrow in Fig. 43), but were not seen in C. uzet and C. gahavisuka (Figs 82, 86) and are ambiguous in Allococalodes madidus (Fig. 19). Additional evidence for the monophyly of the cocalodines comes from preliminary data from the 28 S gene, by which Cocalodes, Allococalodes and the three genera described here are resolved as a monophyletic group (Maddison & Zhang unpublished).
- Maddison, Wayne P.; 2009: New cocalodine jumping spiders from Papua New Guinea (Araneae: Salticidae: Cocalodinae), Zootaxa 2021: 2-3. doi