(Liljeblad, Johan, Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis, Neser, Stefan & Melika, George 2011)
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- Qwaqwaia Liljeblad, Johan, 2011, Zootaxa 2806: 37-37.
Diagnosis. The new tribe lacks any really distinctive autapomorphy, but can be distinguished from all remaining cynipids by the combination of the following characters: right mandible with two teeth; ventral margin of clypeus straight; occipital carina distinctive, sharp; parascutal carina extending to notaulus; mesopleuron medially with longitudinal striae, without a clear longitudinal medial impression; tarsal claws simple; radial cell closed along anterior margin, with a short abscissa from R 1, before meeting wing margin, forming a narrow costal cell; areolet present; Cu 1 and Cu 1 a not separated by a gap; third abdominal tergum short, covering only about 1 / 3 of metasoma; hypopygium abrupt, without any visibly prolonged ventral spine, with a conspicuous and dense tuft of setae. This new tribe is easily distinguishable from all Aylacini and Synergini by a combination of the following characters: a) only two prominent teeth on right mandible; b) anteromedian depressions are separated by a central, slightly impressed area; c) parascutal carina anteriorly extending to notaulus; d) induces a relatively complex gall on a woody plant of the eudicot subclass Rosidae. In comparison to the remaining tribes, however, the new tribe is seemingly plesiomorphic. In addition to a lack of the diagnostic characters for these more derived tribes, the group can be separated by the pronotal characters: the Pediaspidini + Paraulacini have two distinct anteroadmedian depressions clearly separated medially without any transverse impression ventrally delimiting the dorsal pronotal plate, while the Diplolepidini + Eschatocerini + Cynipini have a pronotum that is much narrower medially.
Description. Face wider than high, with striae radiating from clypeus laterally, reaching compound eye, but not reaching ventral margin of toruli. Clypeus rectangular, not set off from margin of head, not protruding over mandibles; conspicuous anterior tentorial pits and epistomal sulcus. Head posterodorsally with sharp occipital carina. Both mandibles with two teeth. Female antenna with 12 flagellomeres, not broadening towards apex. Mesosoma pubescent except for most of lateral surface of mesopleuron. Anteromedian depression of pronotum not interrupted medially. Parascutal carina anteriorly extending to notaulus. Notaulus distinct and complete; median mesoscutal impression distinct. Scutellar foveae distinct, separated by a median coriaceous carina. Mesopleuron with broad transverse impressions medially. Metascutellum distinctly constricted medially. Propodeum medially pubescent and sculptured; lateral propodeal carinae short and incomplete, diverging dorsally. Nucha relatively long. Radial cell closed. Areolet of forewing large, wing margins with long cilia. Tarsal claws simple. Metasoma mostly smooth. Dorsal length of tergum 3 about ¼ that of gaster. Hypopygium with ventral spine not protruded; setae forming a dense apical tuft similar to some Cynipini such as the Cynips +Biorhiza group. Male unknown.
Biology and Ecology
- Liljeblad, Johan; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Neser, Stefan; Melika, George; 2011: Adding another piece to the cynipoid puzzle: the description of a new tribe, genus and species of gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) endemic to The Republic of South Africa, Zootaxa 2806: 37-37. doi