(Epstein, Marc E. & Brown, John W. 2003)

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Epstein, Marc E., Brown, John W. (2003) Early stages of the enigmatic Prodidactis mystica (Meyrick) with comments on its new family assignment (Lepidoptera: Prodidactidae). Zootaxa 247 : 2 – 9, doi. Versioned wiki page: 2017-06-26, version 156451, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Epstein,_Marc_E._%26_Brown,_John_W._2003)&oldid=156451 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Epstein2003Zootaxa247,
author = {Epstein, Marc E. AND Brown, John W.},
journal = {Zootaxa},
title = {Early stages of the enigmatic Prodidactis mystica (Meyrick) with comments on its new family assignment (Lepidoptera: Prodidactidae)},
year = {2003},
volume = {247},
issue = {},
pages = {2 -- 9},
doi = {TODO},
url = {},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2017-06-26, version 156451, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Epstein,_Marc_E._%26_Brown,_John_W._2003)&oldid=156451 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Early stages of the enigmatic Prodidactis mystica (Meyrick) with comments on its new family assignment (Lepidoptera: Prodidactidae)
A1 - Epstein, Marc E.
A1 - Brown, John W.
Y1 - 2003
JF - Zootaxa
JA -
VL - 247
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/TODO
SP - 2
EP - 9
PB -
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2017-06-26, version 156451, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Epstein,_Marc_E._%26_Brown,_John_W._2003)&oldid=156451 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.

M3 - doi:TODO

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Epstein2003Zootaxa247">{{Citation
| author = Epstein, Marc E., Brown, John W.
| title = Early stages of the enigmatic Prodidactis mystica (Meyrick) with comments on its new family assignment (Lepidoptera: Prodidactidae)
| journal = Zootaxa
| year = 2003
| volume = 247
| issue =
| pages = 2 -- 9
| pmid =
| publisher =
| doi = TODO
| url =
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2020-02-16

}} Versioned wiki page: 2017-06-26, version 156451, https://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=(Epstein,_Marc_E._%26_Brown,_John_W._2003)&oldid=156451 , contributors (alphabetical order): PlaziBot.</ref>


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Lepidoptera
Familia: Limacodidae
Genus: Prodidactis

Name

Prodidactis mystica MeyrickWikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Description

Adult. Head (Figs. 1-2, 5- 7): Smooth scaled or only slightly roughened, frons red; vertex pale gray; ocellus absent; chaetosema absent; maxillary palpus well developed, 3 -segmented, covered and tufted with large pale scales; labial palpus greatly reduced, 3 - segmented, with crimson-red scales; haustellum well developed, unscaled. Area dorsad of haustellum base with a vertical row of pale scales. Antenna filiform, finely ciliated, not differentiated between sexes; antennal pecten absent.


Yponomeutidae Tortricidae Zygaenidae Limacodidae Immidae Crambidae Prodidactidae EGG egg type upright flat flat flat upright upright flat LARVA L­group on T1 trisetose trisetose bisetose bisetose*trisetose bisetose bisetose pinaculum w/ absent out seta absent absent absent absent absent/ present present crochets multiserial rows uni­triordinal circle mesoseries mesoseries mesoseries bi­triordinal circle biordinal circle prolegs A3­6, 10A3­6, 10A3­6, 10A2­7, 10*A3­6, 10A3­6, 10A3­6, 10L1 and L2 on abd separate pinaculum same pinaculum same pinaculum same pinaculum separate pinac.same pinaculum same pinaculum anal fork absent present present absent absent absent absent PUPA general form fusiform fusiform compact compact fusiform fusiform compact haustellum present present present present present present present labial palpus small small small small small small small maxillary pal­ pus absent present absent absent absent absent present eye unscuptured unsculptured sculptured sculptured unsculptured unsculptured unsculptured dorsal spines absent present present present absent absent absent cremaster absent present/ absent vestigial absent/present present present/ absent absent cocoon present present/ absent present present present present present protrudes at em.no yes yes yes?no no ADULT vertex of head smooth­scaled rough­scaled unmodified rough­scaled smooth­ scaled unmodifed smooth­scaled labial palpus3­segmented3­segmented3­segmented2­3­segmented3­segmented3­segmented3­segmented

Yponomeutidae Tortricidae Zygaenidae Limacodidae Immidae Crambidae Prodidactidae maxillary pal­ pus1­2­segmented2­4­seg­ mented1­2­seg­ mented1­3­segmented1­2­seg­ mented2­4­seg­ mented3­segmented haustellum naked naked naked naked naked scaled naked male antenna filiform filiform/ variable bipectinate/ filiform bipectinate/ filiform filiform variable filiform antennal pecten absent/present absent absent absent absent absent absent ocellus absent usually present usually present absent absent/ present present/ absent absent chaetosemata absent present usually present absent usually present present/ absent absent venation heteroneurous heteroneur­ ous heteroneur­ ous heteroneurous heteroneur­ ous hetero­ neurous heteroneurous wing coupling frenulate frenulate frenulate frenulate frenulate frenulate frenulate FW pterostigma present/absent absent absent absent absent/ present absent absent FW chorda present/absent present/ absent absent absent absent absent present FW anal veins A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked A1+2 stalked FW cell vein absent present/ absent usually absent present absent absent absent HW pterostigma absent absent absent absent absent absent absent HW anal veins A1+2 A3 stalked A1+2 A3 stalked A1A2A3 stalked A1+2 A3 stalked A1+2 A3 stalked A1+2 A3 stalked A1+2 A3 stalked HW cell vein present usually absent present/ absent present present absent absent epiphysis present present present/ absent absent present present present tibial spurs0­2­4 0­2­4variable variable0­2­4 0­2­4 0­2­4pretarsal pul­ villus unmodifed unmodified unmodified unmodified unmodifed setiform outgrowth setiform outgrowth abdominal tympana absent absent absent absent absent present absent abd. apodemes tineoid­type tortricoid­ type tortricoid­ type tortricoid­type tortricoid­ type unmodified tortricoid­type Thorax: Whitish gray (Fig. 6). Epiphysis well developed in both sexes. Distinct hairpencils on posterior aspect of hind coxae of male associated with free, elongate, membranous, saclike lobes that are asymmetrical (Fig. 8); hindtibia with 4 spurs. Pulvillus of pretarsus with long setiform outgrowths on dorsal lobe (Fig. 21). Forewing (Figs. 1­2, 9) moderately broad; costa weakly arched throughout; apex slightly falcate. Length 17­28 mm (females larger). Upper surface buff to yellow buff, faintly rosy tinged in some specimens; anterior 0.66 of costal region suffused whitish, with a few scattered black specks, especially towards dorsal and terminal areas; costa crimson at base; an elongate orange spot near middle of costa; variably developed antemedial, medial, and postmedial zig­zag fasciae of pale orange. No costal fold, upraised scales, or other male secondary structures. Length of discal cell approximately 0.55 forewing length, closed; all veins present, free and separate basally; discal cell between M 1 and M 2 weak, angled inward; M­stem present, weak, ending between M 1 and M 2; accessory cell present at distal end of discal cell; CuP weak; 1 A+ 2 A forked at base; pterostigma absent. Hindwing uniform pale yellow or pale orange yellow. All veins present, separate; discal cell approximately 0.65 length of hindwing, closed; discal cell between M 1 and M 2 weak; CuP well developed; tuft of long scales arising near base of CuP; pterostigma absent. Wing coupling frenulate, 1 spine in male, 3 in female. Under surface pale yellow.

Abdomen: Apodemes of tortricioid­type (Fig. 8); lacking tympanum. Pale orange buff. Male genitalia (Fig. 10) with uncus stout, as long as width of tergite, attenuate distally, tapering to a rounded point, densely covered with stout hairs directed anteriorly; attached to tegumen at a partially membranous point of articulation. Gnathos arms moderately broad, united into a single narrow, mesal process, strongly up­curved in distal 0.33, ending in a foot­shaped sclerite with pointed toe. Socius apparently absent. Valva long, with broad basal portion, slender central portion, and broad apical region; costa strongly sclerotized; inner surface densely covered with long hairs. Aedeagus stout, bent near middle, slightly undulate; attenuate distally with short spine on left side near apex; cornuti absent. Female genitalia (Fig. 11) with papillae anales broad, rounded ventrally, moderately sclerotized, densely covered with long hairs; not fused dorsally. Apophyses moderately long, slender. Sterigma a simple plate, ostium bursae simple. Ductus bursae nearly as long as abdomen; corpus bursae small, rounded; signum absent.


Last Instar Larva (n = 3) (Figs. 3­4, 14, 17­19). General: Length 22­26 mm, rather stout. Head red brown with no conspicuous markings. Prothoracic shield dark greenish brown with dorsal separation of halves indicated by a yellow line. Body greenish yellow, with a narrow dark green longitudinal middorsal line and a broad, dark green longitudinal subdorsal line extending ventrad to dorsal edge of spiracles; pinacula conspicuous, yellow; non­setal bearing pinacula on meso­ and metathorax red brown; secondary setae absent. Head: Frons extending about 0.7 to occipital foramen; stemmata arranged in an arc except for S 5 (Fig. 19); spinneret moderate in length, rounded distally (Figs. 17­18); mandible with three large teeth, one smaller tooth, and a flattened region at inner portion (Fig. 18). Thorax (Fig. 14): Prothorax with bisetose L­group on common prespiracular pinaculum; SD 2 seta approximately 0.4 times length of SD 1; spiracle on prothorax surrounded by large, clear disk. SV­group bisetose on prothorax, unisetose on meso­ and metathorax. Meso­ and metathorax each with non­seta­bearing dorsal pinacula; mesothorax with three naked pinacula, two slightly dorsad of D pinaculum, one on each side, and a third anterad and slightly ventrad of SD pinaculum; metathorax similar, with hint of an additional naked pinaculum anterad and ventrad of first anterior pinaculum. Abdomen (Fig. 14): Spiracles surrounded by inconspicuous unsclerotized disk; spiracle on A 8 slightly larger than those on A 1­7; D 2 s on separate pinacula on A 9; SD 1 well dorsad and slightly anterad of spiracle on A 1­7, conspicuously more anterad on A 8; L 1 and L 2 together, in horizontal row, on large common lateral pinaculum below spiracle on A 1­8; L 1 +L 2 pinaculum on A 9 nearly vertical; L 3 absent on A 9; SV group on 1,2,3­6,7,8,9 usually 2: 3: 3: 2: 2: 1; anal fork absent. Crochets 70­75 in uniform biordinal circle on A 3­6; crochets 50­55 in a semicircle on A 10. Pupa. General (Figs. 12­13, 15­ 16): Short and broad, compact, zygaeniform. Compound eye unsculptured; haustellum elongate, extending to distal end of front legs; maxillary palpi extending to near end of antennae; labial palpus a small triangle. Abdomen unmodified, without rows of spines on dorsum; spiracle not visible on A 1; cremaster absent. Cocoon. General (Fig. 20): Somewhat smooth on one surface and rough on opposite side; oval and flattened, 1.8 cm x 1.0 cm; opening along edge of narrow end, ca. 0.33 length of cocoon. Life history. Eggs are flat and scalelike (N. Duke, pers. comm.), similar to those of many Tortricidae (Horak 1999) and Limacodidae (Epstein 1996), and are laid on the leaves of the host. Behavior of the early instars was not recorded. Fourth and fifth instars are solitary, apparently feeding from the upper surface on leaves of Nuxia congesta, as supported by photographic evidence (Figs. 3­4). The larvae form a shelter in a rolled leaf, but spend more time feeding exposed on the leaf than do tortricids (N. Duke, pers. comm.). Pupation occurs on the host in a dense, tough cocoon spun on or between leaves forming a shelter; overwintering is apparently accomplished in this stage. The pupa does not protrude from the cocoon prior to eclosion. Adults have been collected from October through March (Janse 1964: 22). Geographic distribution. According to Janse (1964: 22), P. m y s t i c a is known from Durban Nggeleni (Pondoland), Nkandhla Forest (Zululand), Noordkaap, Barberton, Marieps Mountain, Graskop, Kowyn's Pass, Pretoria, Woodbush, Malta, and Zoutpansberg (all Transvaal). Specimens in the Transvaal Museum (M. Krüger, pers. comm.) provide the following distribution data: SOUTH AFRICA: TRANSVAAL: The Downs, Entabeni Forest, Kownyn's Pass, Pilgrim's Rest District, Uitsoek, Louis Trichardt, Piesangkop NE, Louis Trichardt Mariepskop Forestry, Malta Forest, Woodbush, Barbeton, De Hoek Forestry, Timbadiola Forestry, Pretoria North. NATAL: Ngoya Forest, Mtunzini District, Durban, Nkhandla Forest. EASTERN CAPE: Transkei, the Haven, Nggeleni. SWAZILAND: Mbabane. ZIMBABWE: Vumba Mountains, Lundi.

Taxon Treatment

  • Epstein, Marc E.; Brown, John W.; 2003: Early stages of the enigmatic Prodidactis mystica (Meyrick) with comments on its new family assignment (Lepidoptera: Prodidactidae), Zootaxa 247: 2-9. doi
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