(Cock, Matthew J. W. 2016)
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- Gomalia Cock, Matthew J. W., 2016, Zootaxa 4173: 302-302.
The classification developed by Warren et al. (2008, 2009) is based on a combined analysis of DNA and morphological characters of adults and their genitalia. Warren et al. (2008) found the Pyrgus group (without Erynnis) to be polyphyletic. They concluded that although similar in appearance to the other genera of the Pyrgus group, Alenia belongs in Celaenorrhini, which is supported by their common food plant family: Acanthaceae (Cock & Congdon 2011b). Furthermore, they split the remaining genera between two tribes: Carcharodini and Pyrgini. Thus, Gomalia, Carcharodus, Spialia and Muschampia belong in one clade of Carcharodini, which includes another 25 Neotropical genera in different clades, while Pyrgus, Celotes, Heliopyrgus and Heliopetes form one clade within Pyrgini, which contains another 19 Neotropical genera in different clades. This arrangement is considered further in the discussion at the end of this paper.
- Cock, Matthew J. W.; 2016: Observations on the biology of Afrotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) with particular reference to Kenya. Part 10. Pyrginae, Carcharodini, Zootaxa 4173: 302-302. doi