Sturnira burtonlimi

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Velazco P, Patterson B (2014) Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador. ZooKeys 402 : 43–66, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.402.7228. Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-16, version 44261, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Sturnira_burtonlimi&oldid=44261 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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@article{Velazco2014ZooKeys402,
author = {Velazco, Paúl M. AND Patterson, Bruce D.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador},
year = {2014},
volume = {402},
issue = {},
pages = {43--66},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.402.7228},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/7228/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-16, version 44261, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Sturnira_burtonlimi&oldid=44261 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador
A1 - Velazco P
A1 - Patterson B
Y1 - 2014
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 402
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.402.7228
SP - 43
EP - 66
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-16, version 44261, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Sturnira_burtonlimi&oldid=44261 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.402.7228

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Velazco2014ZooKeys402">{{Citation
| author = Velazco P, Patterson B
| title = Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2014
| volume = 402
| issue =
| pages = 43--66
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.402.7228
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/7228/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2014-11-27

}} Versioned wiki page: 2014-04-16, version 44261, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Sturnira_burtonlimi&oldid=44261 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Chiroptera
Familia: Phyllostomidae
Genus: Sturnira

Name

Sturnira burtonlimi Velazco & Patterson, 2014 sp. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Synonymy

Sturnira ludovici: Clare et al. 2011[1]: 9 (part)
S[turnira]. new species 1: Velazco and Patterson 2013[2]: 687

Holotype

Adult male, deposited at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM 104294), collected on 7 March 1995 by Burton K. Lim and Eamon O’Toole (original field number F 38144). Prepared as dry skin, skull, and skeleton. The skin, skull, and skeleton are in good condition. Frozen tissues are deposited at the Royal Ontario Museum (F 38144).

Type locality

Ojo de Agua, 2 km N of Santa Clara, Chiriquí, Panama, approximately 8°42'N, 82°45'W, 1500m (Figure 2).
Paratype. The skin, skull, and carcass of an adult male (ROM 104295) caught on 7 March 1995 at the type locality by Burton K. Lim and Eamon O’Toole (original field number F 38145).

Additional specimens

Besides the specimens from the type series from Panama, Velazco and Patterson (2013)[2] reported an additional record of Sturnira burtonlimi (referred as Sturnira new species 1) from the Cartago province in Costa Rica (MVZ 174432 ♂; Appendix) based on DNA sequence data. We did not include this specimen as part of the type series because it was not available for examination, therefore the diagnostic morphological characteristics of Sturnira burtonlimi could not be confirmed in this specimen.

Distribution

The new species is known from only two localities, one in Costa Rica and the other in Panama (Figure 2, Appendix).

Etymology

The name burtonlimi honors our friend Dr. Burton K. Lim, who collected the type series of this species and has made many other important collections throughout the Neotropics and beyond. Burton is a tireless fieldworker whose research has contributed much to our understanding of the diversity, relationships, and biogeography of tropical mammals.

Measurements

External and craniodental measurements are presented in Table 1.

Diagnosis and description

Sturnira burtonlimi is a medium-sized yellow-shouldered bat (FA 44.0 mm; GLS 22.7–22.8 mm; CIL 20.8–21.5 mm; Table 1) with a broad rostrum and a globular braincase (Figures 3–4). The dorsal fur is dark brown. Dorsal hairs are tetracolored with a short, pale gray base (approximately 10% of the length of each hair), a long, dark grey band (approximately 40% of each hair), a long, pale gray band (approximately 40% of each hair), and short dark brown terminal band (approximately 10% of each hair). The ventral fur is dark brown. Ventral hairs are tricolored with a short, pale gray base (approximately 10% of each hair), a long, dark brown subterminal band (approximately 45% of each hair), and a long, gray terminal band (approximately 45% of each hair). The fur is long and woolly, approximately 7 mm long between the shoulders and 5 mm on the chest. The proximal portion of the forearm (roughly 50% of the shaft just distal to the elbow) is densely furred with short hairs. The wing membranes of Sturnira burtonlimi are dark brown. The dorsal surfaces of the femur and tibia are densely covered with long hairs. The dorsal surfaces of the feet are densely covered with short hairs. The IV metacarpal is shorter than the III metacarpal.
The skull of Sturnira burtonlimi has a globular braincase with a broad rostrum and a well-developed sagittal crest (Figures 3–4). The basisphenoid pits are shallow and divided by a low midline septum. The sphenorbital fissure is subcircular. The anterior process of the glenoid fossa is well developed, as are the clinoid processes. The proximal end of the stylohyoid is expanded.
Like most species of Sturnira, Sturnira burtonlimi has a dental formula of I2/2, C1/1, P2/2, M3/3 = 32 teeth. The upper inner incisor (I1) is unicuspidate and has a small lateral cusp (Figure 8). The I1 is procumbent and is at least twice the height of the I2. Anteroposterior length of P3 is less than that of P4, and crown height of P3 is slightly less than that of P4. Both P3 and P4 possess a small distal cusp. Anteroposterior length of M1 is longer than M2. The paracone and metacone of M1 and M2 are subequal in height. The direction of the premetacrista of M1 is perpendicular to the upper alveolar plane. The M3 is ovoid in shape and has only one labial cone (cusp). The first and second lower incisors (i1 and i2) are bicuspidate. The i1 and i2 are subequal in height. The lower canine covers half the occlusal surface of i2. The lower canines are laterally divergent, their shafts slanted outward. Anteroposterior length of p2 is more than that of p4, and crown height of p2 is slightly more than that of p4. The protoconid, hypoconid, metaconid, and entoconid are present in m1 and m2. The paraconid is present and well developed in m1. Paraconid is absent in m2. The lingual cuspids (metaconid and entoconid) of m1 and m2 are poorly defined and are not separated by a deep notch (Figure 9). The m3 is small and only poorly defined protoconid, metaconid, and entoconid are evident.

Comparisons

Sturnira burtonlimi was compared with the closely related species Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, and Sturnira oporaphilum (Velazco and Patterson 2013[2]) and with other sympatric species of the genus (Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira parvidens). External and craniodental measurements for Sturnira burtonlimi and the compared species are provided in Tables 1 and 2. Sturnira burtonlimi can be easily distinguished from Sturnira ludovici by its shorter forearm and shorter greatest length of skull and from Sturnira parvidens by its longer forearm and longer greatest length of skull (Tables 1–2). Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum overlap somewhat in size (Tables 1–2) but can be unambiguously distinguished based on pelage and craniodental characteristics.
Externally, the dorsal pelage between the shoulders of Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum is long (7.0–10 mm) and tetracolored, whereas it is short (4.0–6.0 mm) and bicolored in Sturnira luisi and Sturnira parvidens. The overall appearance of the dorsal pelage is dark brown in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas it is pale brown in Sturnira luisi and reddish in Sturnira parvidens. Ventrally the hairs are short (4.0–6.0 mm) and tricolored in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens; but short (4.0–6.0 mm) and bicolored in Sturnira luisi, and long (8.0 mm) and monocolored in Sturnira hondurensis. The ventral fur is dark gray in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas it is pale gray in Sturnira hondurensis, dark brown in Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and reddish in Sturnira parvidens. Shoulder glands (epaulettes) are conspicuous in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas they are absent in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum. The trailing edge of the uropatagium is covered by long hairs (7.0–9.0 mm) in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas the uropatagium is covered by short hairs (4.0–5.0 mm) in Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira parvidens. The proximal portion of the forearm (roughly 50% of the shaft just distal to the elbow) is well furred with short hair in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas it is well furred with long hair in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, and sparsely furred with short hairs in Sturnira luisi. The dorsal surfaces of the femur and tibia are densely covered with long hairs in Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira hondurensis, whereas they are densely covered with short hairs in Sturnira ludovici, sparsely covered with long hairs in Sturnira mordax, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens, and sparsely covered with short hairs in Sturnira luisi. The dorsal surfaces of the feet are densely covered with short hairs in Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira ludovici, whereas they are densely covered with long hairs in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens, sparsely covered with long hairs in Sturnira mordax, and sparsely covered with short hairs in Sturnira luisi. The IV metacarpal is shorter than the III metacarpal in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas the IV metacarpal is equal to the III metacarpal in Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum.
Cranially, the rostrum of Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens is broad, whereas it is slender in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira mordax. The basisphenoid pits are shallow and divided by a low midline septum in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas they are shallow divided by a high septum in Sturnira luisi and deep divided by a high septum in Sturnira hondurensis and Sturnira parvidens (Figure 3). The sphenorbital fissure is subcircular in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas it is oval in Sturnira ludovici and Sturnira parvidens. The anterior process of the glenoid fossa is well developed in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas it is absent or poorly developed in Sturnira mordax and Sturnira oporaphilum. Some specimens of Sturnira ludovici (TTU 102461) lack the anterior process of the glenoid fossa while others (TTU 102457) present a well-developed anterior process of the glenoid fossa. The clinoid processes are well developed in Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira ludovici, whereas they are weak in Sturnira oporaphilum and absent in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira mordax. Clinoid processes are present in some specimens of Sturnira parvidens (ROM 99284), while they are lacking in others (ROM 97412; TTU 84608). The proximal end of the stylohyoid is expanded in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas it is narrow in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira mordax.
Dentally, the upper inner incisor (I1) is unicuspidate in Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira hondurensis, whereas it is bicuspidate in Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens (Figure 8). A small distal cusp is present on P3 in Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas this cusp is absent in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira parvidens. The direction of the premetacrista of M1 is perpendicular to the upper alveolar plane in Sturnira burtonlimi, whereas the premetacrista is oblique to the upper alveolar plane in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, Sturnira mordax, Sturnira oporaphilum, and Sturnira parvidens. One labial cusp is present in M3 in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas two labial cusps are present in Sturnira luisi and Sturnira parvidens. The i1 and i2 are bicuspidate in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas they are tricuspidate in Sturnira luisi and Sturnira parvidens. The lower canines are laterally divergent, shafts slanted outward, in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira luisi, and Sturnira parvidens, whereas they are not laterally divergent in Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum. The metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are poorly defined and are not separated by a deep notch in Sturnira burtonlimi, Sturnira hondurensis, Sturnira ludovici, Sturnira mordax, and Sturnira oporaphilum, whereas the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are well defined and separated by a deep notch in Sturnira luisi and Sturnira parvidens (Figure 9).

Natural history

Sturnira burtonlimi has been documented from an elevational range of 1290 to 1500 m and was taken in premontane forest near coffee fields. All known specimens are males. Testes of the type series specimens measured 5 × 3 mm (ROM 104294) and 7 × 5 mm (ROM 104295).

Original Description

  • Velazco, P; Patterson, B; 2014: Two new species of yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira Gray, 1842 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Costa Rica, Panama and western Ecuador ZooKeys, 402: 43-66. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.402.7228

Other References

  1. Clare E, Burton K, Fenton M, Hebert P (2011) Neotropical bats: Estimating species diversity with DNA barcodes. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22648. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022648
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Velazco P, Patterson B (2013) Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68: 683-698. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.04.016

Images

Figure 2. Map of Central and South America, showing the combined distribution range of species formerly ascribed to Sturnira lilium (gray tone) and the type localities (stars) of species in the Sturnira lilium complex. The localities where Sturnira burtonlimi (top inset) and Sturnira bakeri (bottom inset) occur are also shown; type localities are represented by a star and paratypes with circles. Note that Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira luisi occur in sympatry.
Figure 2. Map of Central and South America, showing the combined distribution range of species formerly ascribed to Sturnira lilium (gray tone) and the type localities (stars) of species in the Sturnira lilium complex. The localities where Sturnira burtonlimi (top inset) and Sturnira bakeri (bottom inset) occur are also shown; type localities are represented by a star and paratypes with circles. Note that Sturnira burtonlimi and Sturnira luisi occur in sympatry. 
Figure 3. Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of the cranium of Sturnira bakeri (QCAZ 14635 ♀) from El Oro, Ecuador. Dorsal (C) and ventral (D) views of the cranium of Sturnira burtonlimi (ROM 104294 ♂) from Chiriquí, Panama. Scale bar = 5 mm.
Figure 3. Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views of the cranium of Sturnira bakeri (QCAZ 14635 ♀) from El Oro, Ecuador. Dorsal (C) and ventral (D) views of the cranium of Sturnira burtonlimi (ROM 104294 ♂) from Chiriquí, Panama. Scale bar = 5 mm. 
Figure 4. Lateral views of the cranium and mandible of A Sturnira bakeri (QCAZ 14635 ♀). Lateral views of the cranium and mandible of B Sturnira burtonlimi (ROM 104294 ♂). Scale bar = 5 mm.
Figure 4. Lateral views of the cranium and mandible of A Sturnira bakeri (QCAZ 14635 ♀). Lateral views of the cranium and mandible of B Sturnira burtonlimi (ROM 104294 ♂). Scale bar = 5 mm. 
Figure 8. Anterior views of the upper incisors and canines in Sturnira bakeri (A, QCAZ 14635 ♀) and Sturnira burtonlimi (B, ROM 104294 ♂) illustrating taxonomic differences in the number of cuspids of the upper inner incisor (I1). In Sturnira bakeri the I1 is bicuspidate. In Sturnira burtonlimi, however, the I1 is unicuspidate.
Figure 8. Anterior views of the upper incisors and canines in Sturnira bakeri (A, QCAZ 14635 ♀) and Sturnira burtonlimi (B, ROM 104294 ♂) illustrating taxonomic differences in the number of cuspids of the upper inner incisor (I1). In Sturnira bakeri the I1 is bicuspidate. In Sturnira burtonlimi, however, the I1 is unicuspidate. 
Figure 9. Dorsolateral views of the left mandibular toothrows in Sturnira bakeri (A, QCAZ 14635 ♀) and Sturnira burtonlimi (B, ROM 104294 ♂), illustrating taxonomic differences in the shape of the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2. In Sturnira bakeri, the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are well defined and separated by a deep notch (arrows). In Sturnira burtonlimi, however, the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are poorly defined and are not separated by a deep notch (arrows).
Figure 9. Dorsolateral views of the left mandibular toothrows in Sturnira bakeri (A, QCAZ 14635 ♀) and Sturnira burtonlimi (B, ROM 104294 ♂), illustrating taxonomic differences in the shape of the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2. In Sturnira bakeri, the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are well defined and separated by a deep notch (arrows). In Sturnira burtonlimi, however, the metaconid and entoconid of m1 and m2 are poorly defined and are not separated by a deep notch (arrows). 
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