Selenops bifurcatus

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Crews S (2011) A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean. ZooKeys 105 : 1–182, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.105.724. Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11098, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_bifurcatus&oldid=11098 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

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BibTeX:

@article{Crews2011ZooKeys105,
author = {Crews, Sarah C.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean},
year = {2011},
volume = {105},
issue = {},
pages = {1--182},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.105.724},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/724/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11098, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_bifurcatus&oldid=11098 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean
A1 - Crews S
Y1 - 2011
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 105
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.105.724
SP - 1
EP - 182
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11098, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_bifurcatus&oldid=11098 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.105.724

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Crews2011ZooKeys105">{{Citation
| author = Crews S
| title = A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2011
| volume = 105
| issue =
| pages = 1--182
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.105.724
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/724/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2017-11-23

}} Versioned wiki page: 2011-06-14, version 11098, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Selenops_bifurcatus&oldid=11098 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Selenopidae
Genus: Selenops

Name

Selenops bifurcatus Banks, 1909Wikispecies linkPensoft Profile

Type material

Holotype male: Oricuajo, Costa Rica, Biolley and Tristan (MCZ, examined).

Notes

The holotype female of Selenops salvadoranus Chamberlin, 1925 from San Salvador, El Salvador, I.1920 (MCZ, examined) is in every way identical to females collected with males of S. bifurcatus Banks, 1909, the name is to be synonymized.

Other material examined

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste: Palo Verde Field Station, vic. OTES office, hill behind office, 10°20'42.5"N, 85°20'19.1"W, 17.I.2008, ~31 m, S. Crews, R. Duncan, SCC08_021, 1 imm. (EME sel_987); Palo Verde National Park, Cueva Las Tigres, 10°21'58.9"N, 85°21'14.2"W, 17.I.2007, ~31 m, dry limestone forest, S. Crews, under bark, 1 imm. (CAS sel_991). EL SALVADOR: Chalatenango: Mun: Chalatenango, La Cueva del Corridor, 6.I.2008, ~1147 m, under rocks in and around cave, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, SCC08_010, 4♀, 1 imm. (EME sel_925-929) Mun. Tejutto, Canton Apsectos, Rest. Eucalyptos, 14°12'20.5"N, 89♂06'43.9"W, ~447 m, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, under rocks, SCC08_008, 1♂ (CAS sel_921). Conchagua: Volcán Conchagua, near La Uníon, 13°18'14.1"N, 87°51'19.6"W, 4.I.2008, ~281 m, S. Crews, R. Duncan, J. Carver, P. Berea, under rocks, SCC08_006, 1p♂, 2 imm. (EME sel_912, 914-915). La Uníon: Mun. El Carmen, Lotificacion Amaya, 13°21'44.9" N, 87°59'58.2" W, 5.I.2008, ~297 m, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, SCC08_007, 3♀, 1♂, 1 imm. (CAS sel_916, 918-920). San Salvador: 1928, S. Calderon, 1♀ (USNM); I.1920, several (USNM); 700 m, 5.V.1905, Schuster, 1♀ (AMNH); Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, 13°40'23.4"N, 89°11'53.6"W, ~397 m, 3.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, SCC08_003, 2♀, 4♂, 2 imm. (EME sel_881-887, 889). San Vicente: Mun. Tepetitán, vic. Finca El Carmen 13°37'53.0"N, 88°50'19.5"W, ~732 m, 4.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, SCC08_005, 2♀, 2♂, 1p♂, 1 imm. (CAS sel_899, 901, 903-905, 910); vic. San Vicente, off of road to Zacatecolouca near gentlemen's club ‘Dreamed Girl', 13°37'43.4"N, 88°46'49.6"W, ~397 m, 3.I.20, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, under rocks at night, SCC08_004, 1♀, 1♂, 5 imm. (EME sel_890-896). GUATEMALA: Chiquimula: 1250', 23-23.VII.1947, C. and P. Vaurie, 1♂ (AMNH). Zacapa: Zacatán, Las Guacamayas, Carretera Santa Rosalia Marmo, Hídroelectrica Pasabíen, 15°01'39.7"N, 89°41'41.2"W, 1-2.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, dry thornscrub, under rocks and bark, SCC08_002, 1♀, 2♂, 2p♂, 6 imm. (CAS sel_869-877, 879-880). NICARAGUA: Altagracia: Lago Nicaragua, Isla Ometeme, Charco Verde, Volcán Concepción, around Hotel Finca Vincenzia, 11°28'42.6"N, 35°38'20.6"W, ~67 m, 12.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, under bark of fence posts and trees, under roof shingles on ground, SCC08_014, 1p♂, 3 imm. (EME sel_943, 945-946, 948); Lago Nicaragua, Isla Ometeme, across the street and up the hill from Hotel Vinca Vincenzia, ~84 m, 11°29'31.2"N, 85°38'14.1"W, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, under bark of Bursera, SCC08_015, 1p♂, 1 imm. (CAS sel_951, 953). Boaco: Aguascalientes, Alc. Teustepe, Camino La Cuesta, 12°22'57.8"N, 85°47'30.7"W, ~195 m, 15.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, SCC08_020, 1♀, 4 imm. (EME sel_963, 976, 979-981). Leon: Alc. El Jicaral, Camino Santa Rosa, Puente la Guayabita, 12°44'31.2"N, 86°22'44.6"W, ~122 m, 14.I.2008, under rocks, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, SCC08_017, 3♀, 3 imm. (CAS sel_961-962, 964, 967, 969-970); Alc. San Jacinto, Mina El Límon, Rancho Las Brisas, off road from Telica to San Isidro, 12°37'03.8"N, 86°44'34.3"W, ~87 m, 14.I.2008, S. Crews, R. Duncan, P. Berea, J. Carver, SCC08_016, 1p♂, 5 imm. (EME sel_954-955, 957-960). Madríz: Alc. Ocotal, Totogalpa, 11.I.2008, 13°33'49.5"N, 86°29'64.6"W, ~672 m, S. Crews, under rocks, SCC08_013, 2♀, 1♂, 4 imm. (CAS sel_931-933, 936-939).

Diagnosis

Males can be distinguished from other species by the large, bifurcated MA that somewhat resembles an articulating claw (Fig. 79). In many specimens the second branch is obscured by the conductor. The RTA is also distally bifurcated (Fig. 80). Females can be distinguished from others by having the posterior margin of the epigynal plate extend beyond the epigastric furrow, and a septum that appears to befused to the epigynal plate posteriorly (Figs 81–82).

Remarks

Banks (1909)[1] first described a male and female collected from Oricuajo, Costa Rica by Biolley and Tristan. Presumably they were collected together. The female was not illustrated. Muma (1953)[3] redescribed these specimens, illustrating both the male and the female. Chamberlin (1925)[2] described the female of Selenops salvadoranus, but made no illustration. Muma (1953)[3] also redescribed and illustrated this type. Kraus (1955)[4] described and illustrated both the male and female of Selenops salvadoranus. The male matched the male of Selenops bifurcatus from both Banks (1909)[1] and Muma (1953)[3]. The illustration of the female was clearly that of Selenops salvadoranus as illustrated by Muma (1953)[3]. It seems as though Kraus (1955)[4] was aware of Muma's (1953) work, but perhaps was unable to look at the actual specimens. In many instances, the innermost branch of the MA is obscured by the conductor, in which case, the MA appears to be single branched, rather than double branched. It would appear that this was the case when Muma (1953)[3] illustrated the type, which upon closer examination does have a two branched MA. Several species of selenopids have overlapping distributions. Some species have widespread distributions, while others have small distributions. Thus, even collecting a male and female from the same locality does not guarantee that they are same species. Unless a male and female are collected mating, or collected simultaneously from multiple localities, or their identities can be cross-checked with DNA data, it is recommended that they not be described as the same species, as this case illustrates. I have collected the same male and female from multiple localities across Central America, they have mated and produced offspring in the lab, and they have matching DNA sequences for multiple genes. In conclusion, the name Selenops salvadoranus has been synonymized with Selenops bifurcatus, and what was originally designated as the female of Selenops bifurcatus is here described as Selenops oricuajo sp. n. (see below).

Description

Holotype male: Color. carapace (holotype) dusky orange with white setae (recent) dusky yellow, duskier laterally; sternum light yellow; chelicerae (holotype) same color as carapace, with dusky longitudinal lateral stripes and one dusky medial area (recent) same color as carapace, with duskier marks; maxillae (holotype) yellow brown (recent) light yellow; labium (holotype) dusky yellow brown, darker laterally (recent) pale yellow, lightening distally; abdomen dorsally (holotype) greyish-tan (recent) greyish-tan, mottled with darker spots; ventrally light yellow; legs (holotype), same color as carapace, annulations not visible, but ventral surface of femur I dusky (recent) legs light yellow, annulations on femur not visible, but dusky area ventrally, patella and tibia with rings. Carapace:0.90 times longer than broad. Eyes:AER slightly recurved; PER recurved; PME larger than AME, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.23, ALE 0.10, PME 0.33, PLE 0.50; interdistances AME-PME 0.08, PME-ALE 0.28, ALE-PLE 0.30. PME-PME 1.28. ALE-ALE 2.30; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.45, PLE-PLE 2.25; clypeus 0.20 high. Mouthparts:chelicerae with few scattered setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum:as long as broad, posteriorly indented. Legs:leg I only slightly shorter than II and III; leg formula 4321; scopulae present on distal end of all 4 tarsi; tarsi I-IV with strong claw tufts; pr claw toothed, rl claw with fewer teeth; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, rl 1–0–1, d 1–1–0, v 2–2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–2; leg II, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, d 1–1–0, rl 1–0–1, v 2–2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, v 2–2, rl 1–1–0; leg III, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, rl 1–0–1, d 1–1–0, v 2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–1–1; leg IV, Fm pr 1–1–1, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti pr 1–0–1, rl 1–0–1, d 1–1–0, v 2–2; Mt pr 1–1–0, rl 1–1–0, v 2–1–1. Abdomen:without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp:Fm, spination d 0–1–4; cymbium oval in ventral view, slightly angled posterolaterally; conductor large angular structure arising from the side and medially,curved laterally, tapering upwards, pointed at tip; embolus long, slender, curved, beginning at 6 o'clock, terminating at 12 o'clock, not quite extending to lateral edge, but more medial, tapering distally; MA arising at 2 o'clock, with two long, finger-like branches, directed laterally, base wide; RTA with 2 apophyses, one curving in toward cymbium, small, quadrangular, one curving away from cymbium, with 3 distal projections, one rounded and curved, the other two forming a y-shaped distal bifurcation, RTA extending at least one third the length of cymbium in ventral view (Figs 79–80). Dimensions: Total length 9.75. Carapace length 4.75, width 5.30. Sternum length 2.00, width 2.00. Abdomen length 5.00, width 3.53. Pedipalp: Fm 1.75, Pt 0.40, Ti 0.70, Ta 1.00, total 3.85. Leg I: Fm 4.75, Pt 1.75, Ti 4.40, Mt 4.00, Ta 2.90, total 17.80. Leg II: Fm 5.50, Pt 1.90, Ti 5.00, Mt 4.50, Ta 1.90, total 18.80. Leg III: Fm 5.75, Pt 1.75, Ti 4.65, Mt 4.75, Ta 1.75, total 17.65. Leg IV: Fm 5.75, Pt 1.75, Ti 5.00, Mt 5.00, Ta 1.75, total 19.25.
Female (holotype of Selenops salvadoranus): Color: carapace (holotype of Selenops salvadoranus) red-brown with white setae (recent) dusky yellow-brown overall, more brown in cephalic region and medially, more yellow laterally, with light setae in the cephalic region and on laterally; sternum orange-brown, darker around border; chelicerae (holotype of Selenops salvadoranus) brown (recent) orange-brown, darker laterally; maxillae orange-brown, lightening distally; labium dark brown, lightening distally; abdomen dorsally (holotype of Selenops salvadoranus) light orange-brown, wrinkled, no distinct marks (recent) light grey brown, speckled with darker spots, dark caudal festoon present; ventrally dusky yellow grey, no markings; legs (holotype of Selenops salvadoranus) legs orange-tan, no markings apparent; (recent) legs yellowish, annulations present on all segments. Carapace:0.96 times longer than broad. Eyes:AER slightly recurved; PER recurved; PME larger than AME, PLE largest, ALE smallest; eye diameters, AME 0.23, ALE 0.15, PME 0.43, PLE 0.53; interdistances AME-PME 0.10, PME-ALE 0.20, ALE-PLE 0.53. PME-PME 1.53. ALE-ALE 2.50; ocular quadrangle AME-AME 0.55, PLE-PLE 2.80; clypeus 0.17 high. Mouthparts:chelicerae with stout setae medially and anteriorly; maxillae longer than broad, with tuft of conspicuous setae distally; labium distally rounded. Sternum:1.20 times longer than broad, posteriorly indented. Legs:leg formula 4321 (Muma 1953[3]); scopulae present on tarsi of all legs and metatarsi of legs I and II; tarsus I-IV with strong claw tufts; both claws with similar number of teeth; spination: leg I, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti d 0, v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; II, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti v 2–2–2; Mt v 2–2; III, Fm pr 1–1–0, d 1–1–1, rl 1–1–1; Ti v 2–2–0; Mt v 2–1–1. Abdomen:without terminal setal tufts. Pedipalp:Claw with 15 teeth. Epigyne:epigynal plate extending beyond epigastric furrow, truncate posteriorly, median septum present, sinuous laterally, genital openings located anterolaterally to septum, epigynal pockets absent; internally, ducts directed slightly posteriorly, then laterally, fertilization ducts located laterally, small posterodorsal fold present covering posterior margin of internal ducts (Figs 81–82). Dimensions: Total length 11.85. Carapace length 5.65, width 5.90. Sternum length 3.00, width 2.50. Abdomen length 6.20, width 4.75. Pedipalp: Fm 1.60, Pt 0.75, Ti 1.00, Ta 2.00, total 5.35. Leg I: Fm 5.25, Pt 2.00, Ti 4.75, Mt 3.80, Ta 1.75, total 17.55. Leg II: Fm 5.00, Pt 2.00, Ti 4.25, Mt 3.75, Ta 2.00, total 17.00. Leg III: Fm 6.50, Pt 2.00, Ti 5.00, Mt 4.50, Ta 2.00, total 20.00. Leg IV: Missing.

Natural history

Found under rocks and other debris on the ground, under the bark of trees and on fence posts and around human dwellings in a variety of habitats (Fig. 200). The egg sac is a white to yellowish flat disc that is either guarded by the female or not, and is either hidden or not (Fig. 182). A female will lay eggs within a few weeks of mating. One female made 3 egg sacs, each containing 40–70 eggs. This species is widely distributed and, thus, is also found with other species of selenopid, in particular Selenops mexicanus and Selenops oricuajo sp. n.

Distribution

Found from southeastern Guatemala to northwestern Costa Rica (Map 8).

Taxon Treatment

  • Crews, S; 2011: A revision of the spider genus Selenops Latreille, 1819 (Arachnida, Araneae, Selenopidae) in North America, Central America and the Caribbean ZooKeys, 105: 1-182. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.105.724

Other References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Banks N (1909) Arachnida from Costa Rica. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 61:194-234.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chamberlin R (1925) Diagnoses of new American Arachnida. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard 67:209-248.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Muma M (1953) A study of the spider family Selenopidae in North and Central America and the West Indies. American Museum Novitates 1619:1-55.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Kraus O (1955) Spinnen aus El Salvador (Arachnoidea, Araneae). Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft 493:1-112.

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