Eresidae

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Miller J, Griswold C, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M (2012) The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys 195 : 1–144, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.195.2342. Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-24, version 24808, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Eresidae&oldid=24808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.

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@article{Miller2012ZooKeys195,
author = {Miller, Jeremy A. AND Griswold, Charles E. AND Scharff, Nikolaj AND Řezáč, Milan AND Szűts, Tamás AND Marhabaie, Mohammad},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)},
year = {2012},
volume = {195},
issue = {},
pages = {1--144},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.195.2342},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2342/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-24, version 24808, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Eresidae&oldid=24808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.}

}

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TY - JOUR
T1 - The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)
A1 - Miller J
A1 - Griswold C
A1 - Scharff N
A1 - Řezáč M
A1 - Szűts T
A1 - Marhabaie M
Y1 - 2012
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 195
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.195.2342
SP - 1
EP - 144
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-24, version 24808, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Eresidae&oldid=24808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.195.2342

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

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| author = Miller J, Griswold C, Scharff N, Řezáč M, Szűts T, Marhabaie M
| title = The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2012
| volume = 195
| issue =
| pages = 1--144
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.195.2342
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/2342/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2014-04-17

}} Versioned wiki page: 2012-05-24, version 24808, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Eresidae&oldid=24808 , contributors (alphabetical order): Daniel Mietchen, Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Eresidae

Name

C. L. KochWikispecies linkPensoft Profile

  • Chercheuses (Erraticae) Walckenaer, 1802: 248; Walckenaer 1805[1]: 21.
  • Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850: 70; Simon 1892[2]: 248–254; Lehtinen 1967[3]: 385–390; Griswold et al. 2005[4]: 24–27.

Nomenclatural note

Walckenaer (1802)[5] divided spiders into 18 “Famillies.” At this time, concepts of nomenclature were distinctly different from our modern understanding. All spider species were referred to by a binomen with “Aranea” as the genus regardless of “famillie” placement. Chercheuses (Erraticae) contained one species: Aranea cinnaberina (now Eresus kollari). Because Walckenaer’s family name was not formed from the stem name of the type genus, it was not considered valid once international codes of nomenclature were adopted starting in 1905 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1905[6]). For an enlightening discussion of Walckenaer’s and related systems of spider classification, see Edwards (2011)[7].

Diagnosis

Distinguished from other three-clawed, eight-eyed, cribellate entelegyne spiders except Penestomidae by their subrectangular carapace and clypeal hood; distinguished from Penestomidae by the absence of an RTA on the male palpal tibia, the absence of a median apophysis arising from the palpal tegulum, the absence of a posterior lobe of the epigynum (the posterior lobe is a separate plate in Penestomidae; compare Figs 45A, 93A with Miller et al. 2010b[8]: fig. 8A), and the absence of a tapetum in the indirect eyes. The eye arrangement in Eresidae is distinctive, with a straight anterior eye row and strongly recurved posterior eye row, with the median eyes close together, the ALE near the anterior lateral corners of the carapace, and the PLE position on the carapace at least 0.2 (Figs 8B, D, F, H, J, L, 9B, D, F, H, J, L, 10 B, D, F, H, J, L, 11B, D, F, H, J, L); by contrast, Penestomidae have the anterior eyes subequally spaced with the ALE placed about midway between the center and the corners of the carapace (Miller et al. 2010b[8]: fig. 1C), and the PLE position on the carapace ca. 0.1.

Description

Somatic morphology:Carapace subrectangular in dorsal view; cephalic region may be strongly raised. Eight eyes in two rows, posterior eye row strongly recurved so that the PLE are set far back from the others (Figs 8B, D, F, H, J, L, 9B, D, F, H, J, L, 10 B, D, F, H, J, L, 11B, D, F, H, J, L). Tapetum absent from eyes. The anterior-median part of carapace extended ventrally into a clypeal hood (Figs 8A, C, E, G, I, K, 9A, C, E, G, I, K, 10A, C, E, G, I, K, 11A, C, E, G, I, K). Two or more setal morphologies typically present appearing as dark and white setae in museum specimens (Figs 35B, 81D, 91B). Chelicerae robust, may be contiguous (Fig. 19G) or excavated mesally (Fig. 68F), distal anterior part with dense cluster of strong setae near fang (Fig. 28C), usually with boss (Figs 28B, 46B, 56E, but see 56C); large single keel anterior to fang, may be serrate, with series of small denticles leading towards base of fang; there is no distinct fang furrow (Figs 34F, 91F). Female palp with tarsal claw (Fig. 92F). Legs usually short with two rows of trichobothria on tibiae and one distal trichobothrium on metatarsi. Bothria have series of transverse grooves proximally (Figs 25D, 38B, 45E, 92B). Tarsal organ small, capsulate, and positioned near the distal tip (Figs 38A, 46D, 92A). Major and median claws with series of teeth (Figs 38C, 92C). Linear calamistrum occupies entire length of metatarsus IV (Figs 25E, 38D, 46E, 92D), with a dorsal patch of smaller calamistral setae (i.e., with lines of teeth, Figs 25F, 31F, 38E, 46F, 67F, 82F, 92E). In some eresids, the line of primary calamistrum setae is not clearly distinguishable from the dorsal patch (Figs 25F, 31F, 46F, 67F). Abdomen generally oblong with distinct dorsal sigilla (Figs 3I, 4H, 19A, 47I, 89E). Posterior respiratory system comprises four simple tracheal tubes (Lamy 1902[9]; CEG, pers. obs. Stegodyphus and Dresserus).
Male palp: Male palpal tibia without apophysis, with two rows of trichobothria (Figs 27F, 34E, 55F). Palpal bulb with sclerotized conductor that interacts with spiral embolus (Figs 27C, 34D, 41F, 90D), expansion occurs in both the basal and median haematodochae (Figs 12F, 13C, F, 15C, L). Axis of spiral typically proximal-distal with embolus encircling distal part (Figs 12B, 13B, H, J, 14I, 15B, H, K), occasionally more or less ventral-dorsal with embolus encircling ventral part (Dresserus and Gandanameno; Figs 12G, 13D, 33I–K, 48A–F). Female genitalia: Epigynum present with entelegyne configuration, one pair of spermathecae (typically in a posterior position except in Dresserus and Gandanameno, where they are anterior), and spermathecal heads (typically in an anterior position and far from the spermathecae except in Dresserus and Gandanameno, where they are adjacent to the spermathecae; Figs 16D–F, J–L, 17D–F, 18D–F, J–L, 22B, 29D, 37E, 42D, 45B, 59C, 65B, 76B, 82B, 86B, 93B); posterior lobe absent (compare Figs 45A, 93A with Miller et al. 2010b[8]: fig. 8A). Spinneret spigot morphology: ALS typically with multiple MAP (absent in Seothyra, Figs 77B, 78B) and a field of PI (Figs 36B, 94B). PMS with one to several mAP and a field of AC, occasionally elongated and divided into two lobes (female Dresserus and Gandanameno, Figs 36C, 57A, C), CY present (Figs 36C–D, 57C, 58E) or uncertain. PLS with field of AC, MS positioned on dorsal part adjacent to ALS far from rest of field, may be accompanied by one (Dorceus, Figs 30F, 32F) or two (Eresus sandaliatus group, Loureedia gen. n., Seothyra, Stegodyphus, Figs 67D, 87D, 95E) flanking AC (no MS-flanking AC in at least Dresserus and Gandanameno, Figs 36E, 57D, 58C, 61B–C). Cribellum present with median division in most genera (Figs 57E, 77E, 87A, 94A, E), each half subdivided in Dresserus (Fig. 36F). Multiple epiandrous gland spigots present in male (Figs 22E–F, 28D, 39F, 45F, 61E–F, 65F, 74E–F, 80E–F, 85E–F, 93F).

Phylogeny

Our phylogenetic analysis is a modest expansion of Miller et al. (2010a)[10] and the topology is congruent with the earlier study. The additions to the new analysis are two specimens of Paradonea variegata and twenty more specimens of Gandanameno. As reported previously, Eresidae is divided into two major clades: one consisting of Seothyra, Dresserus, and Gandanameno, the other containing the remaining genera including Paradonea (Figs 51, S1). In our topology, Paradonea sits on a long branch sister to a clade consisting of Eresus, Adonea, Loureedia gen. n., and Dorceus; Stegodyphus is sister to this five-genus clade. Note that our exemplar for Paradonea is not the type species and the monophyly of this genus is uncertain. Our focus on sequencing Gandanameno was designed to elucidate species limits within the genus, in combination with morphological data (Figs 50, S2, S3). These results are discussed further in the section on Gandanameno, below.

Key to genera of Eresidae

(note: females of Paradonea striatipes Lawrence, 1968, Paradonea splendens (Lawrence, 1936), Paradonea parva (Tucker, 1920), and Paradonea presleyi sp. n. are unknown)

Taxon Treatment

  • Miller, J; Griswold, C; Scharff, N; Řezáč, M; Szűts, T; Marhabaie, M; 2012: The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae) ZooKeys, 195: 1-144. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.195.2342

Other References

  1. Walckenaer C (1805) Tableau des aranéides ou caractères essentiels des tribus, genres, familles et races que renferme le genre Aranea de Linné, avec la désignation des espèces comprises dans chacune de ces divisions. Paris, 88 pp.
  2. Simon E (1892) Histoire Naturelle des Araignées. Deuxième edition. Volume 1. Paris, 256pp.
  3. Lehtinen P (1967) Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families. Annales Zoologici Fennici 4: 199-468.
  4. Griswold C, Ramírez M, Coddington J, Platnick N (2005) Atlas of phylogenetic data for entelegyne spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae: Entelegynae) with comments on their phylogeny. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 56: 1-324.
  5. Walckenaer C (1802) Faune parisienne. Insectes. ou Histoire abrégée des insectes de environs de Paris. Paris 2: 187-250.
  6. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1905) Règles internationales de la nomenclature zoologique. International rules of zoological nomenclature. Internationale Regeln der zoologischen Nomenklatur. Rudeval, Paris, 57 pp.
  7. Edwards G (2011) A review of the type disignations of the genus Salticus Latreille, genus Attus Walckenaer, and the family Salticidae Blackwall (Arachnida: Araneae), with special reference to historical connections with the genus Myrmarachne MacLeay. Peckhamia 93: 1-11.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Miller J, Griswold C, Haddad C (2010b) Taxonomic revision of the spider family Penestomidae (Araneae, Entelegynae). Zootaxa 2534: 1-36.
  9. Lamy E (1902) Recherches anatomiques sur les trachées des araignées. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Paris (Zoologie 8) 15: 149–280.
  10. Miller J, Carmichael A, Ramírez M, Spagna J, Haddad C, Řezáč M, Johannesen J, Král J, Wang X, Griswold C (2010a) Phylogeny of entelegyne spiders: Affinities of the family Penestomidae (NEW RANK), generic phylogeny of Eresidae, and asymmetric rates of change in spinning organ evolution (Araneae, Araneoidea, Entelegynae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 786-804. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.021
  11. Dippenaar-Schoeman A (1990) A revision of the African spider genus Seothyra Purcell (Araneae: Eresidae). Cimbebasia 12: 135-160.

Images

Figure 1. A–H Habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A, B Adonea fimbriata A juvenile female (photo by Martin Forman) B adult male from Israel (photo by Martin Forman) C Dresserus kannemeyeri, adult female from Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa (photo Stanislav Macík) D Dresserus sp., adult malefrom Namibia, between the towns Aus and Helmeringhausen (26°13.049'S, 16°36.063'E; photo by Martin Forman) E, F Gandanameno sp. E subadult female from Cape Town, South Africa (Stanislav Macík) F adult male from Anysberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa (photo Martin Forman) G, H adult male Loureedia annulipes; G from Tel Krayot, Israel (photo by Martin Forman) H from Arad, Israel (photo by Martin Forman).
Figure 1. A–H Habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A, B Adonea fimbriata A juvenile female (photo by Martin Forman) B adult male from Israel (photo by Martin Forman) C Dresserus kannemeyeri, adult female from Ndumo Game Reserve, South Africa (photo Stanislav Macík) D Dresserus sp., adult malefrom Namibia, between the towns Aus and Helmeringhausen (26°13.049'S, 16°36.063'E; photo by Martin Forman) E, F Gandanameno sp. E subadult female from Cape Town, South Africa (Stanislav Macík) F adult male from Anysberg Nature Reserve, Western Cape Province, South Africa (photo Martin Forman) G, H adult male Loureedia annulipes; G from Tel Krayot, Israel (photo by Martin Forman) H from Arad, Israel (photo by Martin Forman). 
Figure 2. A–H Habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A, B Eresus kollari A adult female from Hungary (photo by Tamás Szűts) B adult male from Kadaň, Czechia, (photo by Pavel Krásenský) C, E Eresus walckenaeri; C adult female from Greece (photo by Sergio Henriques) D adult male from Mihas, Greece (photo by Martin Forman) E juvenile female F Seothyra sp., juvenile female, from Brandberg, Namibia (photo by Martin Forman) G, H Paradonea variegata (photos by Martin Forman) G juvenile female from Betta, Namibia H adult male from Homeb, Namibia.
Figure 2. A–H Habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A, B Eresus kollari A adult female from Hungary (photo by Tamás Szűts) B adult male from Kadaň, Czechia, (photo by Pavel Krásenský) C, E Eresus walckenaeri; C adult female from Greece (photo by Sergio Henriques) D adult male from Mihas, Greece (photo by Martin Forman) E juvenile female F Seothyra sp., juvenile female, from Brandberg, Namibia (photo by Martin Forman) G, H Paradonea variegata (photos by Martin Forman) G juvenile female from Betta, Namibia H adult male from Homeb, Namibia. 
Figure 3. A–I Habitus of living Stegodyphus, photographs. A–C Stegodyphus lineatus A adult female from Hurghada, Egypt B adult female from Negev desert, Israel (photo by Rudolf Macek) C adult female from Shoam, Israel (photo by Amir Weinstein) D juvenile Stegodyphus tibialis feeding on their mother, Dali, China (photo by Yang Zi-Zhong) E Stegodyphus mimosarum, male (black arrow), females and a kleptoparasite Archeodictyna (white arrow) F Stegodyphus mimosarum, mass attack on a carabid G a female Stegodyphus dumicola feeding her offsprings H a pompilid wasp larva feeds on a female Stegodyphus dumicola (photos E–H by Teresa Meikle) I Stegodyphus sp. female from ShweSettaw Wildlife Reservation, Myanmar (photo by Dong Lin).
Figure 3. A–I Habitus of living Stegodyphus, photographs. A–C Stegodyphus lineatus A adult female from Hurghada, Egypt B adult female from Negev desert, Israel (photo by Rudolf Macek) C adult female from Shoam, Israel (photo by Amir Weinstein) D juvenile Stegodyphus tibialis feeding on their mother, Dali, China (photo by Yang Zi-Zhong) E Stegodyphus mimosarum, male (black arrow), females and a kleptoparasite Archeodictyna (white arrow) F Stegodyphus mimosarum, mass attack on a carabid G a female Stegodyphus dumicola feeding her offsprings H a pompilid wasp larva feeds on a female Stegodyphus dumicola (photos E–H by Teresa Meikle) I Stegodyphus sp. female from ShweSettaw Wildlife Reservation, Myanmar (photo by Dong Lin). 
Figure 4. A–L Retreats, webs, and habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A Adonea fimbriata retreat on the ground from Sede Boqer, Israel (photo by Efrat Gavish-Regev) B Dresserus sp. retreat in the grass (photo by Charles Haddad) C Eresus walckenaeri retreat of juvenile from Ioannina, Greece (photo by Siegfried Huber) D–E Gandanameno sp. from west of Helmeringhausen Namibia (photos by Martin Forman) D Retreat on Acacia E female, with egg sac and various prey remnants F Gandanameno sp. femalefrom Amanzi Game Reserve, South Africa (photo by Tamás Szűts) G, H Seothyra sp. from Namibia G retreat under sand, showing the antelope track pattern H specimen and the exposed retreat (photos E–H, J, L by Teresa Meikle) I Loureedia annulipes, burrow from Sede Boqer, Israel (photo by Efrat Gavish-Regev) J–L Stegodyphus retreats J Stegodyphus dumicola from Spioenkop, South Africa K Stegodyphus lineatus from Tel-Hadid, Israel (photo by Amir Weinstein) L Stegodyphus mimosarum from Spioenkop, South Africa.
Figure 4. A–L Retreats, webs, and habitus of living Eresidae, photographs. A Adonea fimbriata retreat on the ground from Sede Boqer, Israel (photo by Efrat Gavish-Regev) B Dresserus sp. retreat in the grass (photo by Charles Haddad) C Eresus walckenaeri retreat of juvenile from Ioannina, Greece (photo by Siegfried Huber) D–E Gandanameno sp. from west of Helmeringhausen Namibia (photos by Martin Forman) D Retreat on Acacia E female, with egg sac and various prey remnants F Gandanameno sp. femalefrom Amanzi Game Reserve, South Africa (photo by Tamás Szűts) G, H Seothyra sp. from Namibia G retreat under sand, showing the antelope track pattern H specimen and the exposed retreat (photos E–H, J, L by Teresa Meikle) I Loureedia annulipes, burrow from Sede Boqer, Israel (photo by Efrat Gavish-Regev) J–L Stegodyphus retreats J Stegodyphus dumicola from Spioenkop, South Africa K Stegodyphus lineatus from Tel-Hadid, Israel (photo by Amir Weinstein) L Stegodyphus mimosarum from Spioenkop, South Africa. 
Figure 8. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids A–D Adonea fimbriata E–H Dorceus fastuosus I–L Dresserus sp. A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view. Dashed line in I drawn tangential to the mesal margin of the PME does not intersect with the AME indicating median eyes separated on vertical axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale.
Figure 8. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids A–D Adonea fimbriata E–H Dorceus fastuosus I–L Dresserus sp. A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view. Dashed line in I drawn tangential to the mesal margin of the PME does not intersect with the AME indicating median eyes separated on vertical axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale. 
Figure 9. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids. A–D Eresus kollari E–H Gandanameno sp. I–L Loureedia annulipes A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale.
Figure 9. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids. A–D Eresus kollari E–H Gandanameno sp. I–L Loureedia annulipes A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale. 
Figure 10. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids. A–B Paradonea striatipes C–D Paradonea splendens E–H Paradonea variegata I–L Seothyra henscheli A–D, E–F, I–J male G–H, K–L female. A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view G illustrates example of median eyes overlapping on horizontal axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale.
Figure 10. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted eresids. A–B Paradonea striatipes C–D Paradonea splendens E–H Paradonea variegata I–L Seothyra henscheli A–D, E–F, I–J male G–H, K–L female. A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view G illustrates example of median eyes overlapping on horizontal axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale. 
Figure 11. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted Stegodyphus species. A–D Stegodyphus lineatus E–H Stegodyphus mimosarum I–L Stegodyphus sarasinorum. A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view A illustrates example of median eyes separated on horizontal axis; E illustrates example of median eyes overlapping on vertical axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale.
Figure 11. A–L Schematic illustrations of the carapace of assorted Stegodyphus species. A–D Stegodyphus lineatus E–H Stegodyphus mimosarum I–L Stegodyphus sarasinorum. A–B, E–F, I–J male C–D, G–H, K–L female A, C, E, G, I, K anterior view B, D, F, H, J, L dorsal view A illustrates example of median eyes separated on horizontal axis; E illustrates example of median eyes overlapping on vertical axis. Dashed lines at posterior of carapace indicate uncertainty. Not to scale. 
Figure 12. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Adonea fimbriata from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) D–F Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ) G–I Dresserus sp. from Manga Forest Reserve, Tanzania J–L Eresus walckenaeri from Leptokaryas, Greece (MR020, MR) A, D, G, J prolateral view B, E, K retrolateral view H ventral view C, F, I, L expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha.
Figure 12. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Adonea fimbriata from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) D–F Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ) G–I Dresserus sp. from Manga Forest Reserve, Tanzania J–L Eresus walckenaeri from Leptokaryas, Greece (MR020, MR) A, D, G, J prolateral view B, E, K retrolateral view H ventral view C, F, I, L expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha. 
Figure 13. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Eresus kollari from res. Radotinske udoli, Czechia (MR007, MR) D–F Gandanameno sp. from Van Riebeeck Park, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9023763, CAS) G–I Loureedia annulipes from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (PET03, MR) J, K Paradonea striatipes from Otjivasandu (NMN), Namibia L Paradonea splendens from Sunnyside, South Africa (C1076, SAM) A, D, G, J, L prolateral view B, H, K retrolateral view E ventral view C, F, I expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha.
Figure 13. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Eresus kollari from res. Radotinske udoli, Czechia (MR007, MR) D–F Gandanameno sp. from Van Riebeeck Park, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9023763, CAS) G–I Loureedia annulipes from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (PET03, MR) J, K Paradonea striatipes from Otjivasandu (NMN), Namibia L Paradonea splendens from Sunnyside, South Africa (C1076, SAM) A, D, G, J, L prolateral view B, H, K retrolateral view E ventral view C, F, I expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha. 
Figure 14. A–L Left male palpi of Paradonea species, photomicrographs. A Paradonea splendens from Sunnyside, South Africa (C1076, SAM) B, C Paradonea variegata from Breekkierie Dunes, Northern Cape, South Africa (C1062, SAM) D–I Paradonea parva D–F holotype from junction of Marico and Crocodile Rivers, South Africa (B3701, SAM) G–I from 4 km N of Hopetown, Northern Cape, South Africa (AcAT 97/988, NCA) J–L Paradonea presleyi sp. n. holotype from Falcon College, Zimbabwe (CASENT 9039236, CAS) A, C, F, I, L retrolateral view B, D, G, J prolateral view E, H, K ventral view.
Figure 14. A–L Left male palpi of Paradonea species, photomicrographs. A Paradonea splendens from Sunnyside, South Africa (C1076, SAM) B, C Paradonea variegata from Breekkierie Dunes, Northern Cape, South Africa (C1062, SAM) D–I Paradonea parva D–F holotype from junction of Marico and Crocodile Rivers, South Africa (B3701, SAM) G–I from 4 km N of Hopetown, Northern Cape, South Africa (AcAT 97/988, NCA) J–L Paradonea presleyi sp. n. holotype from Falcon College, Zimbabwe (CASENT 9039236, CAS) A, C, F, I, L retrolateral view B, D, G, J prolateral view E, H, K ventral view. 
Figure 15. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Seothyra henscheli from Gobabeb Station, Namibia (SMN 40828, NMN) D, F Stegodyphus lineatus D–E from Negev, Israel (MR) F from Nengrahar, Afghanistan (MR010, MR) G–I Stegodyphus mimosarum from Forêt d'Analalava, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar (CASENT 9015950, CAS) J–L Stegodyphus sarasinorum from 7.5 km E PwintPhyu, Magway Division, Myanmar (CASENT 9019370, CAS) A, D, G, J prolateral view B, E, H, K retrolateral view C, F, I, L expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha.
Figure 15. A–L Left male palpi of eresid species, photomicrographs. A–C Seothyra henscheli from Gobabeb Station, Namibia (SMN 40828, NMN) D, F Stegodyphus lineatus D–E from Negev, Israel (MR) F from Nengrahar, Afghanistan (MR010, MR) G–I Stegodyphus mimosarum from Forêt d'Analalava, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar (CASENT 9015950, CAS) J–L Stegodyphus sarasinorum from 7.5 km E PwintPhyu, Magway Division, Myanmar (CASENT 9019370, CAS) A, D, G, J prolateral view B, E, H, K retrolateral view C, F, I, L expanded palp. BH basal haematodocha MH median haematodocha. 
Figure 16. A–L Epigyna of eresid species, photomicrographs. A, D Adonea fimbriata; A from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) D from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR013, HUJ) B, E Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR) C, F Dresserus sp. from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS) G, J Eresus walckenaeri from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903, ZMUC) H, K Eresus kollari from res. Radotinske udoli, Czechia (MR016, MR) I, L Eresus sandaliatus from SE of Silkeborg, Denmark (CASENT 9039243, CAS) A–C, G–I ventral viewD–F, J–L dorsal view, cleared. CD copulatory duct ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 16. A–L Epigyna of eresid species, photomicrographs. A, D Adonea fimbriata; A from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) D from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR013, HUJ) B, E Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR) C, F Dresserus sp. from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS) G, J Eresus walckenaeri from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903, ZMUC) H, K Eresus kollari from res. Radotinske udoli, Czechia (MR016, MR) I, L Eresus sandaliatus from SE of Silkeborg, Denmark (CASENT 9039243, CAS) A–C, G–I ventral viewD–F, J–L dorsal view, cleared. CD copulatory duct ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 17. A–F Epigyna of Gandanameno sp., photomicrographs. A, D from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970517, ZMUC) B, E from Kommetjie, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9039241, CAS), note broken embolus left in female reproductive system C, F from Port Elizabeth, South Africa (port-3325, ZMHB) A–C ventral view D–F dorsal view, cleared. CD copulatory duct S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 17. A–F Epigyna of Gandanameno sp., photomicrographs. A, D from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970517, ZMUC) B, E from Kommetjie, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9039241, CAS), note broken embolus left in female reproductive system C, F from Port Elizabeth, South Africa (port-3325, ZMHB) A–C ventral view D–F dorsal view, cleared. CD copulatory duct S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 18. A–L Epigyna of eresid species, photomicrographs. A, D Loureedia annulipes from Wadi Mashash, Negev, Israel (MR019, MR) B, E Paradonea variegata from Steinkopf, Northern Cape, South Africa (ZMB 26964, ZMHB) C, F Seothyra henscheli; C from Kuiseb River, Gobabeb, Namibia (SMN 46627, NMN) F from Sout Rivier, Namibia (CASENT 9039242, CAS) G, J Stegodyphus lineatus from Belkis, near Birecor, Turkey (MR015, MR) H, K Stegodyphus mimosarum H from Forêt d'Analalava, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar (CASENT 9015950, CAS) K from Réserve Spéciale de Cap Sainte Marie, Toliara, Madagascar (CASENT 9012844, CAS) I, L Stegodyphus sarasinorum from 7.5 km E PwintPhyu, Magway Division, Myanmar (CASENT 9019370, CAS) A–C, G–I ventral view D–F, J–L dorsal view, cleared. AL anterior lobe ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 18. A–L Epigyna of eresid species, photomicrographs. A, D Loureedia annulipes from Wadi Mashash, Negev, Israel (MR019, MR) B, E Paradonea variegata from Steinkopf, Northern Cape, South Africa (ZMB 26964, ZMHB) C, F Seothyra henscheli; C from Kuiseb River, Gobabeb, Namibia (SMN 46627, NMN) F from Sout Rivier, Namibia (CASENT 9039242, CAS) G, J Stegodyphus lineatus from Belkis, near Birecor, Turkey (MR015, MR) H, K Stegodyphus mimosarum H from Forêt d'Analalava, Fianarantsoa, Madagascar (CASENT 9015950, CAS) K from Réserve Spéciale de Cap Sainte Marie, Toliara, Madagascar (CASENT 9012844, CAS) I, L Stegodyphus sarasinorum from 7.5 km E PwintPhyu, Magway Division, Myanmar (CASENT 9019370, CAS) A–C, G–I ventral view D–F, J–L dorsal view, cleared. AL anterior lobe ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 19. A–J Adonea fimbriata. A–D, I–J male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) E–H female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view. D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 19. A–J Adonea fimbriata. A–D, I–J male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) E–H female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view. D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 22. A–F Adonea fimbriata, scanning electron micrographs. A female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) B–D female from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR013, HUJ) E, F male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) A–D vulva E, F epiandrous region A epigynum, ventral view B cleared vulva, dorsal view C detail, spermathecal heads D detail, right spermatheca E epiandrous region F detail of epiandrous gland spigots. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 22. A–F Adonea fimbriata, scanning electron micrographs. A female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) B–D female from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR013, HUJ) E, F male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) A–D vulva E, F epiandrous region A epigynum, ventral view B cleared vulva, dorsal view C detail, spermathecal heads D detail, right spermatheca E epiandrous region F detail of epiandrous gland spigots. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 25. A–F Adonea fimbriata, scanning electron micrographs. A–C male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) D–F female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) A–C spinnerets and vestigial cribellum. D–F legs of female A detail of spigots on right male ALS B vestigial cribellum C detail of vestigial cribellum D trichobothrium, left metatarsus I E calamistrum, right metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, right metatarsus IV. MAP major ampullate gland spigot.
Figure 25. A–F Adonea fimbriata, scanning electron micrographs. A–C male from Algeria-Morocco (MR012, MR) D–F female from Mehav Am village, Israel (MR003, MR) A–C spinnerets and vestigial cribellum. D–F legs of female A detail of spigots on right male ALS B vestigial cribellum C detail of vestigial cribellum D trichobothrium, left metatarsus I E calamistrum, right metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, right metatarsus IV. MAP major ampullate gland spigot. 
Figure 26. A–J Dorceus fastuosus. A–D, I–J male from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ) E–H female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs J, K illustrations of left male palp. A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view. I prolateral view. J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 26. A–J Dorceus fastuosus. A–D, I–J male from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ) E–H female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs J, K illustrations of left male palp. A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view. I prolateral view. J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 27. A–F Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of left male palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C detail of embolic division, prolateral view D ventral view E detail of embolic division, ventral view F palpal tibia, dorsal view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 27. A–F Dorceus fastuosus from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of left male palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C detail of embolic division, prolateral view D ventral view E detail of embolic division, ventral view F palpal tibia, dorsal view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 28. A–D Dorceus fastuosus, male from Mashabin sand dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs. A prosoma, anterior view B left chelicerae, lateral view C chelicerae, anterior distal view showing fangs and teeth D epiandrous region.
Figure 28. A–D Dorceus fastuosus, male from Mashabin sand dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs. A prosoma, anterior view B left chelicerae, lateral view C chelicerae, anterior distal view showing fangs and teeth D epiandrous region. 
Figure 29. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs. A median eye group B prosoma, dorsal C epigynum, ventral view D cleared vulva, dorsal view E detail, left spermathecal head F detail, right spermatheca. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 29. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs. A median eye group B prosoma, dorsal C epigynum, ventral view D cleared vulva, dorsal view E detail, left spermathecal head F detail, right spermatheca. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 30. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A left ALS B left PMS C detail of left PMS D left PLS E aciniform field on left PLS F modified spigot and flanking aciniform gland spigot on left PLS. Unlabeled spigots in B and C thought to be a mixture of aciniform gland spigots and cylindrical gland spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot.
Figure 30. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A left ALS B left PMS C detail of left PMS D left PLS E aciniform field on left PLS F modified spigot and flanking aciniform gland spigot on left PLS. Unlabeled spigots in B and C thought to be a mixture of aciniform gland spigots and cylindrical gland spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot. 
Figure 31. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs. A detail of spigots on left ALS B cribellum C detail cribellar spigots D trichobothrium, left tibia IV E calamistrum, left metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, left metatarsus IV. MAP major ampullate gland spigot PI piriform gland spigot.
Figure 31. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, female from Mashabim sand dunes, Israel (MR002, MR), scanning electron micrographs. A detail of spigots on left ALS B cribellum C detail cribellar spigots D trichobothrium, left tibia IV E calamistrum, left metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, left metatarsus IV. MAP major ampullate gland spigot PI piriform gland spigot. 
Figure 32. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, male from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A overview B left ALS C left PMS D left PLS E vestigial cribellum F modified spigot and flanking aciniform spigot on left PLS. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret.
Figure 32. A–F Dorceus fastuosus, male from Mashabin Sand Dunes, Israel (MR006, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A overview B left ALS C left PMS D left PLS E vestigial cribellum F modified spigot and flanking aciniform spigot on left PLS. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret. 
Figure 33. A–K Dresserus sp. A–D male from Manga Forest Reserve, Tanzania (ZMUC), image D reversed E–H female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS) I–K male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025746, CAS) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I–K illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J ventral view K retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 33. A–K Dresserus sp. A–D male from Manga Forest Reserve, Tanzania (ZMUC), image D reversed E–H female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS) I–K male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025746, CAS) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I–K illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J ventral view K retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 34. A–F Dresserus sp. A–E male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025746, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of right palp, images reversed to appear as left palp F female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of left chelicera A prolateral view B retrolateral view C ventral view D apical view E palpal tibia, dorsal view F distal part of chelicerae showing fang and teeth. C conductor E embolus T tegulum.
Figure 34. A–F Dresserus sp. A–E male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025746, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of right palp, images reversed to appear as left palp F female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of left chelicera A prolateral view B retrolateral view C ventral view D apical view E palpal tibia, dorsal view F distal part of chelicerae showing fang and teeth. C conductor E embolus T tegulum. 
Figure 35. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of prosoma. A anterior view, chelicerae removed, arrow indicates clypeal hood B dorsal view of eye region C fovea D sternum E right chelicera, ectal view F right cheliceral boss.
Figure 35. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of prosoma. A anterior view, chelicerae removed, arrow indicates clypeal hood B dorsal view of eye region C fovea D sternum E right chelicera, ectal view F right cheliceral boss. 
Figure 36. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A overview B left ALS C right PMS D detail, cylindrical gland spigots on right PMS E left PLS F cribellum. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret CR cribellum CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret.
Figure 36. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets. A overview B left ALS C right PMS D detail, cylindrical gland spigots on right PMS E left PLS F cribellum. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret CR cribellum CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret. 
Figure 37. A–F Dresserus sp., scanning electron micrographs. A, C female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS) D, F female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS) A detail of spigots on right ALS B detail of spigots on anterior part of PMS C detail of spigots on anterior part of right PMS D epigynum, ventral view E vulva, dorsal view F detail of pores on right spermathecal head. AC aciniform gland spigot CD copulatory duct CY cylindrical gland spigot FD fertilization duct MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot PI piriform gland spigot S spermatheca SH spermathecal head t tartipore.
Figure 37. A–F Dresserus sp., scanning electron micrographs. A, C female from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS) D, F female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS) A detail of spigots on right ALS B detail of spigots on anterior part of PMS C detail of spigots on anterior part of right PMS D epigynum, ventral view E vulva, dorsal view F detail of pores on right spermathecal head. AC aciniform gland spigot CD copulatory duct CY cylindrical gland spigot FD fertilization duct MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot PI piriform gland spigot S spermatheca SH spermathecal head t tartipore. 
Figure 38. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of legs A tarsal organ, left leg I B trichobothrium, left leg I C tarsal claw, left leg I setae removed D left metatarsus IV, retrolateral view, showing calamistrum E detail of calimistrum F detail of teeth on calimistrum setae.
Figure 38. A–F Dresserus sp., female from Klein Kariba, South Africa (CASENT 9025745, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of legs A tarsal organ, left leg I B trichobothrium, left leg I C tarsal claw, left leg I setae removed D left metatarsus IV, retrolateral view, showing calamistrum E detail of calimistrum F detail of teeth on calimistrum setae. 
Figure 39. A–F Dresserus sp., male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets and epiandrous region. A overview of spinnerets B right ALS C PMS D left PLS E modified spigot on right PLS F epiandrous region. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret t tartipore.
Figure 39. A–F Dresserus sp., male from Mazumbai, Tanzania (CASENT 9025747, CAS), scanning electron micrographs of spinnerets and epiandrous region. A overview of spinnerets B right ALS C PMS D left PLS E modified spigot on right PLS F epiandrous region. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret t tartipore. 
Figure 40. A–J Eresus walckenaeri. A–D, I–J male from Kresna, Bulgaria (MR) E–H female from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903, ZMUC) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 40. A–J Eresus walckenaeri. A–D, I–J male from Kresna, Bulgaria (MR) E–H female from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903, ZMUC) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 41. A–F Eresus walckenaeri from Kresna, Bulgaria (MR), scanning electron micrographs of right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C detail of embolic division, prolateral view D detail of embolic division, retrolateral view E apex of cymbium, ventral view F detail of embolic division, apical view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 41. A–F Eresus walckenaeri from Kresna, Bulgaria (MR), scanning electron micrographs of right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C detail of embolic division, prolateral view D detail of embolic division, retrolateral view E apex of cymbium, ventral view F detail of embolic division, apical view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 42. A–F Eresus walckenaeri female from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903), scanning electron micrographs. A prosoma, anterior view B epigynum C tarsal organ, left leg I. ventral view D vulva, dorsal view E left spermatheca F left spermathecal head. S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 42. A–F Eresus walckenaeri female from 5 km south of Monemvasia, Lakonia, Greece (ZMUC 00012903), scanning electron micrographs. A prosoma, anterior view B epigynum C tarsal organ, left leg I. ventral view D vulva, dorsal view E left spermatheca F left spermathecal head. S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 43. A–J Eresus kollari. A–D, I, J male from Prague, Czechia (MR007, MR) E–H female from res. Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view, arrow indicates notch in conductor. C conductor E embolus T tegulum.
Figure 43. A–J Eresus kollari. A–D, I, J male from Prague, Czechia (MR007, MR) E–H female from res. Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I, J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view, arrow indicates notch in conductor. C conductor E embolus T tegulum. 
Figure 45. A–F Eresus spp., scanning electron micrographs. A–D Eresus sandaliatus female from SE of Silkeborg, Denmark (CASENT 9039243, CAS) E Eresus kollari female from Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR) F Eresus kollari male from Prague, Czechia (MR007, MR) A epigynum, ventral view B vulva, dorsal view C left spermathecal head D detail, left spermatheca E trichobothria, left tibia I F epiandrous region. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 45. A–F Eresus spp., scanning electron micrographs. A–D Eresus sandaliatus female from SE of Silkeborg, Denmark (CASENT 9039243, CAS) E Eresus kollari female from Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR) F Eresus kollari male from Prague, Czechia (MR007, MR) A epigynum, ventral view B vulva, dorsal view C left spermathecal head D detail, left spermatheca E trichobothria, left tibia I F epiandrous region. ML median lobe S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 46. A–F Eresus kollari from Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR), scanning electron micrographs of female. A prosoma, anterior view B left cheliceral boss C detail of carapace texture D tarsal organ, left leg I E calamistrum, left metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, left metatarsus IV.
Figure 46. A–F Eresus kollari from Srbsko, Czechia (MR016, MR), scanning electron micrographs of female. A prosoma, anterior view B left cheliceral boss C detail of carapace texture D tarsal organ, left leg I E calamistrum, left metatarsus IV F detail, calamistrum seta, left metatarsus IV. 
Figure 47. A–P Gandanameno sp., habitus, photomicrographs. A–D male from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA), images reversed E–H female from Hanover, South Africa (SAM-ENW-B006896/9958, SAM) I–L female from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) M–P female from Eierfontein, South Africa (SAM-12823, SAM) A, E, I, M dorsal view B, F, J, N ventral view C, G, K, O anterior view D, H, L, P lateral view.
Figure 47. A–P Gandanameno sp., habitus, photomicrographs. A–D male from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA), images reversed E–H female from Hanover, South Africa (SAM-ENW-B006896/9958, SAM) I–L female from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) M–P female from Eierfontein, South Africa (SAM-12823, SAM) A, E, I, M dorsal view B, F, J, N ventral view C, G, K, O anterior view D, H, L, P lateral view. 
Figure 48. A–F Gandanameno sp., illustrations of left male palp. A–C from Naauwpoort, North West Province, South Africa (SAM 1600, SAM) D from Van Riebeeck Park, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9023763, CAS) E from Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape, South Africa (SAM 12571, SAM) F from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM) A obliquely retrolateral view B, D–F ventral view C obliquely prolateral view. All images at the same scale. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 48. A–F Gandanameno sp., illustrations of left male palp. A–C from Naauwpoort, North West Province, South Africa (SAM 1600, SAM) D from Van Riebeeck Park, Western Cape, South Africa (CASENT 9023763, CAS) E from Graaff-Reinet, Eastern Cape, South Africa (SAM 12571, SAM) F from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM) A obliquely retrolateral view B, D–F ventral view C obliquely prolateral view. All images at the same scale. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 50. Carapace height plotted against carapace length for adult female Gandanameno specimens from eight regions: Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Gauteng, Hanover, Namaqualand, Namibia, and Port Elizabeth. Regions circumscribed in Fig. 49; sample size given in parentheses. Symbol shape indicates region while symbol darkness indicates presence and strength of cuspules. Specimens were scored as having cuspules absent, having medium to strong cuspules only on the legs, having a mixture of medium and strong cuspules on the prosoma, sternum, and/or legs, and having exclusively strong cuspules on the prosoma, sternum, and legs. As reflected in the legend, not all degrees of spinulation were observed in all regions.
Figure 50. Carapace height plotted against carapace length for adult female Gandanameno specimens from eight regions: Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Gauteng, Hanover, Namaqualand, Namibia, and Port Elizabeth. Regions circumscribed in Fig. 49; sample size given in parentheses. Symbol shape indicates region while symbol darkness indicates presence and strength of cuspules. Specimens were scored as having cuspules absent, having medium to strong cuspules only on the legs, having a mixture of medium and strong cuspules on the prosoma, sternum, and/or legs, and having exclusively strong cuspules on the prosoma, sternum, and legs. As reflected in the legend, not all degrees of spinulation were observed in all regions. 
Figure 51. Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the spider family Eresidae based on mixed model analysis (eight data partitions, manually adjusted alignment; see Miller et al. 2010a[1]); outgroups not shown, see Fig. S1. For the genus Gandanameno, DNA specimen codes are substituted for taxonomic name and specimens are linked to their collection locality in southern Africa. Male specimens indicated by male symbol, female specimens indicated either by a female symbol or a square, the darkness of which indicates the strength and presence of cuspules, scored as in Fig. 50. Branches drawn proportional to change. Numbers at nodes are percent posterior probabilities of 50 or greater.
Figure 51. Bayesian phylogenetic tree of the spider family Eresidae based on mixed model analysis (eight data partitions, manually adjusted alignment; see Miller et al. 2010a[1]); outgroups not shown, see Fig. S1. For the genus Gandanameno, DNA specimen codes are substituted for taxonomic name and specimens are linked to their collection locality in southern Africa. Male specimens indicated by male symbol, female specimens indicated either by a female symbol or a square, the darkness of which indicates the strength and presence of cuspules, scored as in Fig. 50. Branches drawn proportional to change. Numbers at nodes are percent posterior probabilities of 50 or greater. 
Figure 55. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA), scanning electron micrographs, right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C ventral view D apical view E detail of distal tip of conductor F palpal tibia, dorsal view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 55. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA), scanning electron micrographs, right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C ventral view D apical view E detail of distal tip of conductor F palpal tibia, dorsal view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
Figure 56. A–F Gandanameno sp., scanning electron micrographs of prosoma and chelicerae. A–D male from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA) E, F male from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM) A prosoma, anterior view, arrow indicates clypeal hood B prosoma, lateral view C, E left chelicerae, lateral view, arrow in E indicates cheliceral boss D detail of left chelicerae showing absence of cheliceral boss F detail of left chelicerae showing cheliceral boss.
Figure 56. A–F Gandanameno sp., scanning electron micrographs of prosoma and chelicerae. A–D male from Harare, Zimbabwe (AcAT 2005/123, NCA) E, F male from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM) A prosoma, anterior view, arrow indicates clypeal hood B prosoma, lateral view C, E left chelicerae, lateral view, arrow in E indicates cheliceral boss D detail of left chelicerae showing absence of cheliceral boss F detail of left chelicerae showing cheliceral boss. 
Figure 57. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC), scanning electron micrographs of female spinnerets. A overview B right ALS C right PMS D left PLS E cribellum F cribellar spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret CR cribellum CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret t tartipore.
Figure 57. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC), scanning electron micrographs of female spinnerets. A overview B right ALS C right PMS D left PLS E cribellum F cribellar spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot ALS anterior lateral spinneret CR cribellum CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot PLS posterior lateral spinneret PMS posterior median spinneret t tartipore. 
Figure 58. A–F Gandanameno sp., scanning electron micrographs. A–E female from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) F female from Hanover, South Africa (SAM-ENW-B006896/9958) A, B prosoma C–F details of spinneret spigots A anterior view, arrow indicates clypeal hood B left cheliceral boss C detail of modified spigots on right female PLS D detail of spigots on anterior part of right female PMS E detail of cylindrical gland spigots on posterior part of left female PMS F right PMS. AC aciniform gland spigot CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot t tartipore.
Figure 58. A–F Gandanameno sp., scanning electron micrographs. A–E female from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) F female from Hanover, South Africa (SAM-ENW-B006896/9958) A, B prosoma C–F details of spinneret spigots A anterior view, arrow indicates clypeal hood B left cheliceral boss C detail of modified spigots on right female PLS D detail of spigots on anterior part of right female PMS E detail of cylindrical gland spigots on posterior part of left female PMS F right PMS. AC aciniform gland spigot CY cylindrical gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot n nubbin PI piriform gland spigot t tartipore. 
Figure 59. A–F Scanning electron micrographs of epigynum and vulva of Gandanameno sp. A, B from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) C–F from Kommetjie, Cape Town, South Africa (CASENT 9039241, CAS) A epigynum, ventral view B detail of right copulatory opening, ventral view C cleared vulva, dorsal view D detail of right spermatheca and spermathecal head E detail, right spermatheca F detail, right spermathecal head. CD copulatory duct FD fertilization duct S spermatheca SH spermathecal head.
Figure 59. A–F Scanning electron micrographs of epigynum and vulva of Gandanameno sp. A, B from Iringa, Tanzania (ZMUC 19970530, ZMUC) C–F from Kommetjie, Cape Town, South Africa (CASENT 9039241, CAS) A epigynum, ventral view B detail of right copulatory opening, ventral view C cleared vulva, dorsal view D detail of right spermatheca and spermathecal head E detail, right spermatheca F detail, right spermathecal head. CD copulatory duct FD fertilization duct S spermatheca SH spermathecal head. 
Figure 61. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM), scanning electron micrographs of male spinnerets. A detail of spigots on left ALS B left PLS C detail of spigots on left PLS D detail of spigots on left PMS E epiandrous region F detail of epiandrous gland spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot.
Figure 61. A–F Gandanameno sp. from Hanover, South Africa (SAM 9465, SAM), scanning electron micrographs of male spinnerets. A detail of spigots on left ALS B left PLS C detail of spigots on left PLS D detail of spigots on left PMS E epiandrous region F detail of epiandrous gland spigots. AC aciniform gland spigot MAP major ampullate gland spigot mAP minor ampullate gland spigot MS modified spigot PI piriform gland spigot. 
Figure 62. A–J Loureedia annulipes. A, B, D I, J male from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (MR008, HUJ) C male from Nitzanna village, Israel (MR018, HUJ) E, F, H female from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR019, MR) G female from Haluquim, Israel (PET03, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I–J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus T tegulum.
Figure 62. A–J Loureedia annulipes. A, B, D I, J male from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (MR008, HUJ) C male from Nitzanna village, Israel (MR018, HUJ) E, F, H female from Wadi Mashash, Israel (MR019, MR) G female from Haluquim, Israel (PET03, MR) A–D habitus of male, photomicrographs E–H habitus of female, photomicrographs I–J illustrations of left male palp A, E dorsal view B, F ventral view C, G anterior view D, H lateral view I prolateral view J retrolateral view. C conductor E embolus T tegulum. 
Figure 63. A–F Loureedia annulipes from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (MR008, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C conductor, prolateral view D ventral view E conductor, ventral view F apical view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum.
Figure 63. A–F Loureedia annulipes from Haluqim Ridge, Israel (MR008, HUJ), scanning electron micrographs of right male palp, images reversed to appear as left palp. A prolateral view B retrolateral view C conductor, prolateral view D ventral view E conductor, ventral view F apical view. C conductor E embolus ST subtegulum T tegulum. 
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  1. Miller J, Carmichael A, Ramírez M, Spagna J, Haddad C, Řezáč M, Johannesen J, Král J, Wang X, Griswold C (2010a) Phylogeny of entelegyne spiders: Affinities of the family Penestomidae (NEW RANK), generic phylogeny of Eresidae, and asymmetric rates of change in spinning organ evolution (Araneae, Araneoidea, Entelegynae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 786-804. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.02.021
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