Austrarchaea binfordae

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This page should be cited as follows (rationale):
Rix M, Harvey M (2011) Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia. ZooKeys 123 : 1–100, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.123.1448. Versioned wiki page: 2011-08-15, version 13436, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Austrarchaea_binfordae&oldid=13436 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

Citation formats to copy and paste

BibTeX:

@article{Rix2011ZooKeys123,
author = {Rix, Michael G. AND Harvey, Mark S.},
journal = {ZooKeys},
publisher = {Pensoft Publishers},
title = {Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia},
year = {2011},
volume = {123},
issue = {},
pages = {1--100},
doi = {10.3897/zookeys.123.1448},
url = {http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/1448/abstract},
note = {Versioned wiki page: 2011-08-15, version 13436, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Austrarchaea_binfordae&oldid=13436 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.}

}

RIS/ Endnote:

TY - JOUR
T1 - Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia
A1 - Rix M
A1 - Harvey M
Y1 - 2011
JF - ZooKeys
JA -
VL - 123
IS -
UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.123.1448
SP - 1
EP - 100
PB - Pensoft Publishers
M1 - Versioned wiki page: 2011-08-15, version 13436, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Austrarchaea_binfordae&oldid=13436 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.

M3 - doi:10.3897/zookeys.123.1448

Wikipedia/ Citizendium:

<ref name="Rix2011ZooKeys123">{{Citation
| author = Rix M, Harvey M
| title = Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia
| journal = ZooKeys
| year = 2011
| volume = 123
| issue =
| pages = 1--100
| pmid =
| publisher = Pensoft Publishers
| doi = 10.3897/zookeys.123.1448
| url = http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/1448/abstract
| pmc =
| accessdate = 2014-07-16

}} Versioned wiki page: 2011-08-15, version 13436, http://species-id.net/w/index.php?title=Austrarchaea_binfordae&oldid=13436 , contributors (alphabetical order): Pensoft Publishers.</ref>

See also the citation download page at the journal.


Taxonavigation

Ordo: Araneae
Familia: Archaeidae
Genus: Austrarchaea

Name

Austrarchaea binfordae Rix & Harvey sp. n.Wikispecies linkZooBank linkPensoft Profile

Type material

Holotype male: Kerewong State Forest, off McLeods Creek Road, New South Wales, Australia, 31°33'39"S, 152°34'44"E, sifting elevated leaf litter, subtropical rainforest, 15.IV.2010, M. Rix, D. Harms (AMS KS114969DNA: Ar46-106-M).
Paratypes: Allotype female, Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales, Australia, 28.XI.1978, D. Milledge (AMS KS13891); 1 male, same data (AMS KS13891).

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: Lorne State Forest: “Lorne State Forest", pitfall trap, 4.XI.1979, D. Milledge, 1 juvenile (AMS KS5624); same data except 5.VII.1979, D. Milledge, 1 juvenile (AMS KS5390).

Additional material examined (of tentative identification)

AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Willi Willi National Park: Banda Banda Antarctic Beech Forest, off Banda Road, 31°09'47"S, 152°24'23"E, sifting elevated leaf litter, Nothofagus rainforest, 1045 m, 16.IV.2010, M. Rix, D. Harms, 2 juveniles (WAM T112580DNA: Ar47-104-J/Ar47-105-J).

Etymology

The specific epithet is a patronym in honour of Dr Greta Binford, for her pioneering research on spider venoms and for contributing to a highly successful basal clades tour.

Diagnosis

Austrarchaea binfordae can be distinguished from all other Archaeidae from mid-eastern Australia by the very long, spiniform tegular sclerite 1 (TS 1) (Fig. 22F) combined with the unique shape of the conductor (Figs 22D-E), which is thin and slightly curved laterally, with a ridged ventral margin.
This species can also be distinguished from other genotyped taxa from mid-eastern Australia (see Fig. 3B) by the following 14 unique nucleotide substitutions for COI and COII (n = 1): C(291), C(369), C(489), C(720), C(807), T(1013), A(1014), A(1018), C(1019), A(1177), G(1214), C(1294), C(1312), G(1563).

Description

Holotype male: Total length 2.64; leg I femur 2.63; F1/CL ratio 2.70. Cephalothorax dark reddish-brown; legs tan-brown with darker annulations; abdomen mottled grey-brown and beige, with darker reddish-brown dorsal scute and sclerites (Fig. 22B). Carapace tall (CH/CL ratio 2.16); 0.97 long, 2.10 high, 0.92 wide; ‘neck’ 0.44 wide; bearing two pairs of rudimentary horns; highest point of pars cephalica (HPC) near posterior margin of ‘head’ (ratio of HPC to post-ocular length 0.84), carapace gently sloping and almost horizontal anterior to HPC; ‘head’ not strongly elevated dorsally (post-ocular ratio 0.31) (Fig. 9D). Chelicerae with brush of accessory setae on anterior face of paturon (Fig. 22C). Abdomen 1.38 long, 1.05 wide; with three pairs of dorsal hump-like tubercles (HT 1–6); dorsal scute fused anteriorly to epigastric sclerites, extending posteriorly to first pair of hump-like tubercles; HT 3–6 each covered by separate dorsal sclerites. Unexpanded pedipalp (Figs 22D-F) with thin, slightly curved conductor with ridged ventral margin; tegular sclerite 1 (TS 1) very long, spiniform, visible in retrolateral view; TS 2 spur-like, poorly-sclerotised, shorter than TS 1; TS 2a sinuous, largely obscured by TS 2; TS 3 indistinct, embedded within distal haematodocha, barely visible beyond retro-distal rim of tegulum.
Allotype female: Total length 4.15; leg I femur 2.82; F1/CL ratio 2.39. Cephalothorax reddish-brown; legs tan-brown with darker annulations; abdomen mottled grey-brown and beige (Fig. 22A). Carapace tall (CH/CL ratio 2.19); 1.18 long, 2.58 high, 1.08 wide; ‘neck’ 0.59 wide; bearing two pairs of rudimentary horns; highest point of pars cephalica (HPC) near posterior third of ‘head’ (ratio of HPC to post-ocular length 0.64), carapace gently sloping posterior to HPC; ‘head’ not strongly elevated dorsally (post-ocular ratio 0.28) (Fig. 7K). Chelicerae without accessory setae on anterior face of paturon. Abdomen 2.62 long, 2.21 wide; with three pairs of dorsal hump-like tubercles (HT 1–6). Internal genitalia with cluster of ≤ 12 variably shaped spermathecae on either side of gonopore, clusters meeting near midline of genital plate (Fig. 21G); innermost (anterior) spermathecae longest, sausage-shaped, curved antero-laterally; other spermathecae variably pyriform, straight, directed antero-laterally.
Variation: Males (n=2): total length 2.64–2.92; carapace length 0.97–1.03; carapace height 2.10–2.18; CH/CL ratio 2.13–2.16.

Distribution and habitat

Austrarchaea binfordae is known only from lowland subtropical rainforest habitats in the Kerewong and Lorne State Forests, near Wauchope, New South Wales (Fig. 40). Two juvenile specimens from Mount Banda Banda (Willi Willi National Park) may also belong to this species, but possess divergent mtDNA sequences indicative of possible speciation (Fig. 3B).

Conservation status

This species appears to be a rare short-range endemic taxon (Harvey 2002b[1]), with populations in the Kerewong and Lorne State Forests potentially threatened by land-clearing, habitat degradation, fire and climate change. It is one of the few archaeids known to occur in lowland rainforest habitats in south-eastern Australia, and many of these habitats have been severely impacted by forestry activities.

Original Description

  • Rix, M; Harvey, M; 2011: Australian Assassins, Part I: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of mid-eastern Australia ZooKeys, 123: 1-100. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.123.1448

Other References

  1. Harvey M (2002b) Short-range endemism among the Australian fauna: some examples from non-marine environments. Invertebrate Systematics 16: 555-570. doi:10.1071/IS02009

Images

Figure 1. Habitus images of live Archaeidae from mid-eastern Australia: A–B, female Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) from Binna Burra, Lamington National Park, Queensland; C–D, female A. mascordi sp. n. from Coolah Tops National Park, New South Wales; E–F, juvenile A. raveni sp. n. from Mount Glorious, Queensland. Images A–D by M. Rix; images E–F by Greg Anderson, used with permission.
Figure 1. Habitus images of live Archaeidae from mid-eastern Australia: A–B, female Austrarchaea nodosa (Forster, 1956) from Binna Burra, Lamington National Park, Queensland; C–D, female A. mascordi sp. n. from Coolah Tops National Park, New South Wales; E–F, juvenile A. raveni sp. n. from Mount Glorious, Queensland. Images A–D by M. Rix; images E–F by Greg Anderson, used with permission. 
Figure 3. Molecular phylogenetic data analysed as part of this study. A, Schematic map of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–II (COI–COII) gene complex in Archaeidae and other basal Araneomorphae, showing (i) the position of primers used to amplify and sequence 1.6 kilobases of mtDNA, and (ii) the inferred stop and initiation codons for COI and COII, respectively. Note the centralised, overlapping position of the two internal sequencing primer sites (SeqF2a/SeqR1), and the TTG initiation codon for COII, present in all but one of the spider species sequenced for this study. B, Majority-rule consensus tree with re-estimated branch lengths, resulting from a combined, gene-partitioned Bayesian analysis of the COI–COII mtDNA data. Thickened branches represent clades with >95% posterior probability support, and individual support values are shown above other nodes.
Figure 3. Molecular phylogenetic data analysed as part of this study. A, Schematic map of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–II (COI–COII) gene complex in Archaeidae and other basal Araneomorphae, showing (i) the position of primers used to amplify and sequence 1.6 kilobases of mtDNA, and (ii) the inferred stop and initiation codons for COI and COII, respectively. Note the centralised, overlapping position of the two internal sequencing primer sites (SeqF2a/SeqR1), and the TTG initiation codon for COII, present in all but one of the spider species sequenced for this study. B, Majority-rule consensus tree with re-estimated branch lengths, resulting from a combined, gene-partitioned Bayesian analysis of the COI–COII mtDNA data. Thickened branches represent clades with >95% posterior probability support, and individual support values are shown above other nodes. 
Figure 7. Lateral ‘head’ profiles of females of species of Austrarchaea from mid-eastern Australia, showing variation in carapace shape as quantified by the post-ocular ratio (P.O. Ratio) and ratio of highest point of carapace relative to post-ocular length (HPC Ratio): A, allotype A. alani sp. n.; B, allotype A. aleenae sp. n.; C, allotype A. judyae sp. n.; D, allotype A. raveni sp. n.; E, allotype A. harmsi sp. n.; F, allotype A. monteithi sp. n.; G, allotype A. cunninghami sp. n.; H, allotype A. dianneae sp. n.; I, A. nodosa (Forster, 1956); J, allotype A. platnickorum sp. n.; K, allotype A. binfordae sp. n.; L, A. milledgei sp. n. (WAM T112568); M, allotype A. mascordi sp. n.; N, allotype A. smithae sp. n.; O, allotype A. mcguiganae sp. n. Asterisks (*) denote concave depressions.
Figure 7. Lateral ‘head’ profiles of females of species of Austrarchaea from mid-eastern Australia, showing variation in carapace shape as quantified by the post-ocular ratio (P.O. Ratio) and ratio of highest point of carapace relative to post-ocular length (HPC Ratio): A, allotype A. alani sp. n.; B, allotype A. aleenae sp. n.; C, allotype A. judyae sp. n.; D, allotype A. raveni sp. n.; E, allotype A. harmsi sp. n.; F, allotype A. monteithi sp. n.; G, allotype A. cunninghami sp. n.; H, allotype A. dianneae sp. n.; I, A. nodosa (Forster, 1956); J, allotype A. platnickorum sp. n.; K, allotype A. binfordae sp. n.; L, A. milledgei sp. n. (WAM T112568); M, allotype A. mascordi sp. n.; N, allotype A. smithae sp. n.; O, allotype A. mcguiganae sp. n. Asterisks (*) denote concave depressions. 
Figure 9. Lateral ‘head’ profiles of males of species of Austrarchaea from New South Wales (excluding the Border Ranges), showing variation in carapace shape as quantified by the post-ocular ratio (P.O. Ratio) and ratio of highest point of carapace relative to post-ocular length (HPC Ratio): A, holotype A. monteithi sp. n.; B, holotype A. christopheri sp. n.; C, holotype A. platnickorum sp. n.; D, holotype A. binfordae sp. n.; E, holotype A. milledgei sp. n.; F, holotype A. mascordi sp. n.; G, holotype A. smithae sp. n.; H, holotype A. mcguiganae sp. n.; I, holotype A. helenae sp. n. Asterisks (*) denote concave depressions.
Figure 9. Lateral ‘head’ profiles of males of species of Austrarchaea from New South Wales (excluding the Border Ranges), showing variation in carapace shape as quantified by the post-ocular ratio (P.O. Ratio) and ratio of highest point of carapace relative to post-ocular length (HPC Ratio): A, holotype A. monteithi sp. n.; B, holotype A. christopheri sp. n.; C, holotype A. platnickorum sp. n.; D, holotype A. binfordae sp. n.; E, holotype A. milledgei sp. n.; F, holotype A. mascordi sp. n.; G, holotype A. smithae sp. n.; H, holotype A. mcguiganae sp. n.; I, holotype A. helenae sp. n. Asterisks (*) denote concave depressions. 
Figure 21. Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n. A–B, Cephalothorax and abdomen, lateral view: A, allotype female (AMS KS114970) from New England National Park, New South Wales; B, holotype male (AMS KS114971) from New England National Park, New South Wales. C, Holotype male chelicerae, lateral view, showing accessory setae. D–F, Holotype male pedipalp: D–E, bulb, retrolateral view; F, detail of distal tegular sclerites, prodistal view. G, Allotype female internal genitalia, dorsal view. Note the broken left tegular sclerite 1 (TS 1) in (F), highlighted (*) at the point of breakage, compared to the long, sharply-pointed right TS 1 (see inset). C = conductor; E = embolus; Es = embolic sclerite; T = tegulum; (TS)1–3 = tegular sclerites 1–3. Scale bars: A–B = 1.0 mm; E = 0.2 mm.
Figure 21. Austrarchaea platnickorum sp. n. A–B, Cephalothorax and abdomen, lateral view: A, allotype female (AMS KS114970) from New England National Park, New South Wales; B, holotype male (AMS KS114971) from New England National Park, New South Wales. C, Holotype male chelicerae, lateral view, showing accessory setae. D–F, Holotype male pedipalp: D–E, bulb, retrolateral view; F, detail of distal tegular sclerites, prodistal view. G, Allotype female internal genitalia, dorsal view. Note the broken left tegular sclerite 1 (TS 1) in (F), highlighted (*) at the point of breakage, compared to the long, sharply-pointed right TS 1 (see inset). C = conductor; E = embolus; Es = embolic sclerite; T = tegulum; (TS)1–3 = tegular sclerites 1–3. Scale bars: A–B = 1.0 mm; E = 0.2 mm. 
Figure 22. Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n. A–B, Cephalothorax and abdomen, lateral view: A, allotype female (AMS KS13891) from Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales; B, holotype male (AMS KS114969) from Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales. C, Holotype male chelicerae, lateral view, showing accessory setae. D–F, Holotype male pedipalp: D–E, bulb, retrolateral view; F, detail of distal tegular sclerites, prodistal view. G, Allotype female internal genitalia, dorsal view. C = conductor; E = embolus; Es = embolic sclerite; T = tegulum; (TS)1–3 = tegular sclerites 1–3. Scale bars: A–B = 1.0 mm; E = 0.2 mm.
Figure 22. Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n. A–B, Cephalothorax and abdomen, lateral view: A, allotype female (AMS KS13891) from Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales; B, holotype male (AMS KS114969) from Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales. C, Holotype male chelicerae, lateral view, showing accessory setae. D–F, Holotype male pedipalp: D–E, bulb, retrolateral view; F, detail of distal tegular sclerites, prodistal view. G, Allotype female internal genitalia, dorsal view. C = conductor; E = embolus; Es = embolic sclerite; T = tegulum; (TS)1–3 = tegular sclerites 1–3. Scale bars: A–B = 1.0 mm; E = 0.2 mm. 
Figure 40. Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., distribution and habitat: A, topographic map showing the known distribution of Archaeidae in south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales, with collection localities for A. binfordae highlighted in yellow (orange localities denote genotyped juvenile specimens of tentative identification); B, satellite image showing detail of inset (A); C, lowland subtropical rainforest at the type locality – McLeods Creek Road, Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales (April 2010). Image (C) by M. Rix.
Figure 40. Austrarchaea binfordae sp. n., distribution and habitat: A, topographic map showing the known distribution of Archaeidae in south-eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales, with collection localities for A. binfordae highlighted in yellow (orange localities denote genotyped juvenile specimens of tentative identification); B, satellite image showing detail of inset (A); C, lowland subtropical rainforest at the type locality – McLeods Creek Road, Kerewong State Forest, New South Wales (April 2010). Image (C) by M. Rix. 
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